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FASC. 1. Pp. 1-64 


By G. H. E. HOPKINS, M.A., F.E.S. 




The Bbitibh Museum (Natubal Histoby), Cromwell Road, S.W.7 


B. Quabitch, Ltd. ; Dulau & Co., Ltd. ; The Oxford University Press ; and 
Wheldon & Wesley, Ltd., London ; also by Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh 


Issued 9 April, 1927] 

[Price Five Shillings 




Part I. Orthoptera and Dermaptera. 

„ II. Hemiptera. 

„ III. Lepidoptera. 

„ IV. Coleoptera. 

„ V. Hymenoptera. 

„ VI. Diptera. 

„ VII. Other Orders of Insects. 

„ VIII. Terrestrial Arthropoda other than Insects. 

The work will be published at intervals in the form of numbered fascicles. 
Although individual fascicles may contain contributions by more than one 
author, each fascicle will be so arranged as to form an integral portion of one of 
the Parts specified above. 


Pakt III. Fasc. 1 



By G. H. E. Hopkins, M.A., F.E.S. 

With 1 Figure in text, and Plates I to IV. 


The area dealt with in this paper includes Samoa, Tonga, the Ellice and Tokelau 
Islands, and Swain's Island. The collection on which it is mainly based was 
made by Dr. P. A. Buxton and myself during two years (1924 and 1925) spent 
in Samoa while employed in research work on Filariasis for the London School 
of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. During the course of our work we visited 
all the islands of Western Samoa, and in addition were able to do a little col- 
lecting in Tutuila (American Samoa) on several occasions. I have also been 
greatly helped by records and specimens from Dr. J. S. Armstrong and Dr. A. J. 
Brass ; such records, together with all others not my own, are given below 
with the recorder's name appended. Most of the Tongan records were obtained 
during a visit I made to the group during February and March, 1925.* I was 
in Togatabuf from 14th to 26th February, in Haapai on the 13th and 27th, 
and in Vavau on the 12th February and from the 28th February to the 
13th March ; unfortunately a large number of the specimens collected by me 
in Tonga were destroyed on the way to England. I also owe to Dr. Armstrong 
a number of Tongan specimens which he collected in the same localities in 

* This visit, and one of about a week's duration to American Samoa, were made possible 
by a grant from the Fund for Promoting the Study of Evolution, presented to the University of 
Oxford by Prof. J. M. Baldwin, and administered by Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. 

t Spelt " Tongatabu " on most Atlases. 

III. 1 




March 1926, and to Dr. T. D. A. Cockerell, of the University of Colorado, the 
records of a small collection made by Mrs. Cockerell in the same localities in 
July 1924. I was not able to visit any of the higher (volcanic) islands in the 
Tongan group, nor can I find in the literature any records from them. The 
records from the Ellice Islands and neighbouring groups were obtained by 
Dr. Buxton during September 1924. I am indebted to the Bishop Museum, 
Honolulu, for the opportunity of examining three small but very interesting 
collections made by Dr. H. C. Kellers in 1917-1918, Mr. E. H. Bryan in 1924, 
and by Mr. A. F. Judd in 1926, for the most part in American Samoa. I have 
no records from a greater elevation than 2,000 feet in Savai'i and Upolu, or 
1,000 feet in Tutuila, but Bryan, who reached altitudes of four or five thousand 
feet in Savai'i on several occasions, did not see any butterflies much above 
3,000 feet. Rose Atoll has only four species of plants (Pisonia grandis, Boerhaavea 
diffusa, Portulaca sp., and the coconut), and, as might be expected, has no 
butterfly fauna (Mayor, p. 74). The authorities of the British Museum and 
Professor Poulton have allowed me to make full use of the collections under 
their charge, and have helped me in many ways. For the identifications of 
plants I am indebted to the authorities at Kew and at the British Museum. 
The coloured plate I owe to the skill of Miss O. F. Tassart, and the figures of 
early stages to my friend Dr. V. B. Wigglesworth, who drew them from 
specimens in spirit with the aid of photographs from life taken by Dr. 

The literature on the butterflies of the area (like that on all the other groups 
of insects) is unfortunately extremely scattered, and much confused by synonymy 
and misidentifications ; in several instances identical insects are recorded under 
totally different names (sometimes under two different names in the same list), 
while in at least one case (that of Zizera labradus Godt. and Z. alsulus H.S.) 
two very distinct species have, in several lists, been lumped together as being 
synonymous. It is hoped, therefore, that this paper will serve a useful pur- 
pose in bringing together oar knowledge of the subject and clearing up some 
of the synonymic muddles ; no attempt has been made to make the synonymy 
exhaustive, but I have tried to ensure that it is as complete as possible for 
the area under consideration. 

It is most unfortunate that few of the Samoan butterflies in collections 
have more accurate indications of locality than " Samoa " or (as in the case of 
the Bourke collection) " Apia and Pago-Pago " ; this has entirely obscured 


the fact that in several cases the butterflies of Western Samoa (Upolu and Savai'i) 
show very important differences from their relatives in Tutuila (of which island 
Pago-Pago is the capital). On the other hand, I have been fortunate enough to 
capture specimens of several species of butterflies previously unrecorded from 
Samoa, and to work out a portion of the life-histories (for the most part pre- 
viously unknown) of many of the species on my list. 

Many measurements of expanse are given in the following notes ; these 
were a]l taken by measuring the distance from centre of thorax to tip of fore wing 
and doubling the figure thus found ; many of the measurements given by 
German authors are approximately half mine, and are evidently the expanse 
of one forewing only, but the method adopted herein appears to me to be more 

The types of all new forms have been presented to the British Museum, 
paratypes to the Bishop Museum, Honolulu, and to the Hope Department, 

Natural Enemies and Mimicry 

An attempt was made to ascertain the natural enemies of butterflies in 
Samoa. Ants swarm everywhere, and captive larvae were destroyed by them on 
several occasions both there and in Tonga, but I am not able to produce any 
evidence that they attack larvae in nature ; they do not appear to interfere with 
larvae of Badamia exclamationis, though the bushes on which these latter occur 
are always overrun with ants. Birds were never observed to capture butter- 
flies, but that they frequently do so is proved by the fact that specimens of 
several species (including Danaida melittula, Euploea eleutho hourkei, E. schmeltzi, 
and Melanitis leda in Samoa, and Euploea eleutho mathewi and Hypolimnas 
antilope in Tonga) were not uncommonly captured bearing unmistakable beak- 
marks on their wings (PI. Ill, figs, 1, 2, 3). Specimens with what looked like 
lizard-injuries were quite common (PI. Ill, figs. 4-7). Spiders undoubtedly take 
a toll of butterflies, and specimens of Danaida archippus, Danais melittula, 
Euploea schmeltzi and Hypolimnas inconstans, as well as smaller species, were 
found in their webs. On one occasion a Pentatomid bug was caught in the act 
of sucking a larva of Atella exulans. 

I was not able to find any convincing evidence of mimicry in any of the 
islands visited : Hypolimnas errabunda somewhat resembles Euploea schmeltzi, and 
some forms of H. pallescens are not unlike Euploea e. matheivi and E. e. bourkei, 



but these very doubtful cases seem to be the only possible instances of mimicry 
in the area. H. lutescens greatly resembles E. schmeltzi, but the two species 
do not occur in the same islands. 


With the single exception of the comparatively recent American immigrant, 
Danaida archippus, the butterflies inhabiting Samoa and the neighbouring 
groups of islands are all Indo-Malayan in origin ; most of them call for little 
note on the subject of distribution, being very wide-spread throughout the 
islands of Polynesia. The majority of them seem to have reached Samoa by 
way of Fiji, which is the Eastern limit of quite a number of species, but the cases 
of Ewploea schmeltzi, Hypolimnas errabunda, and Atella exulans are different. 
The first-named has no close relatives nearer than the Loyalty Isles, the other 
two both find their closest allies in Papua (and in the case of H. errabunda in 
the Solomons also), and have not been recorded in any form from the islands 
intervening between these localities and Samoa (a distance of about 1,200 miles). 
Many of these islands are not very well-known, and, since both H. errabunda 
and A. exulans are mountain species, it is possible that they have been over- 
looked, as they had been in Samoa, and that races of them will turn up in Fiji 
and perhaps elsewhere ; but this argument does not apply to E. schmeltzi, which 
is a coastal species and could not be overlooked in any locality where any col- 
lecting at all has been done. A possible explanation of the absence of this 
species from any locality between the Loyalties and Samoa is that it existed 
there at one time, but has been worsted in the struggle for existence by the 
larger and more vigorous E. eleutho, which feeds on the same food-plants and 
would, therefore, come into competition with it. Though both species occur 
in Samoa, they are confined to separate islands, and strong support to this 
suggestion would be found if this should prove to be the state of affairs in the 
Loyalties also. Unfortunately, the fact that the material available from the 
latter group is insufficiently supplied with data makes the test impossible of 
application at present. Neither H. errabunda nor E. schmeltzi is recorded in 
any form from localities east of Samoa, but Atella gaberti, which appears to 
be fairly closely related to A. exulans, occurs in Tahiti, though apparently not 
in the intervening groups. 

The other point of special interest, in the distribution of the butterflies 


of the Central Pacific, is the great difference between the fauna of Western and 
that of American Samoa. I have shown this in tabular form in Table I. In 
this table I have marked with a query those species which are rare, or which 
occur only at a considerable altitude, and may therefore yet be met with in 
the islands from which they have not hitherto been recorded. It will be noted 
at once that, leaving out of consideration the cases of H. errabunda and A. 
exulans, both of which come in this category, there are very interesting 
differences between Western and American Samoa, and unexpected resem- 
blances in several cases between the latter and Tonga. Ewploea eleutho occurs 
in both Tonga and American Samoa but not in Western Samoa, as also does 
Hypolimnas antilope ; Ewploea schmeltzi, on the other hand, though abundant 
at low levels in Western Samoa, is absent from the eastern part of the group 
and from Tonga. Furthermore, specimens of Hypolimnas bolina and of Precis 
villida from American Samoa do not appear to be separable from Tongan ones, 
while the same species occur in Western Samoa as quite distinct races : of the 
sixteen species known from American Samoa five do not occur (at least as the 
same race) in Western Samoa. There appears to be at least frimd facie evidence 
that the fauna of Western Samoa has a slightly different origin from that of the 
other two localities ; the difference is not confined to butterflies, but was 
observed in other orders also. Even among the birds similar differences are to 
be found : the king-hunter of Western Samoa is Todirhamphus recurvirostris, 
which in both Tonga and American Samoa is replaced by races of Halcyon 
sacra ; the former is confined to Western Samoa, but other species of the genus 
are recorded as occurring in the Paumotu and Tahiti groups. It seems possible 
that, while the faunas of Tonga and American Samoa have been derived from 
Fiji, that of Western Samoa has come more directly from New Guinea. The 
intervening islands may give evidence for or against this theory when their 
insects are better known. 

Concerning local distribution in a particular island there is little to note. 
As a rule the insects of the coast-belt are not found at higher elevations, except 
where artificial clearings and roads have opened up the country to them. The 
insects of any particular elevation are, however, usually identical in all parts 
of the same island, as might be expected on account of the comparatively small 
size of the latter. 




Distribution of Butterflies in Samoa and Tonga 


Western Samoa. 

American Samoa. 


D. archippus .... 




D. melissa .... 

ssp. melittula 

ssp. tutuilae 

ssp. angustata 

E. eleutho .... 


ssp. bourkei 

ssp. mathewi 

E. schmeltzi .... 


— • 

' — 

A. andromacha 

ssp. polynesiaca 

ssp. polynesiaca 

M. leda . . 

7 7 

ssp. solanara 

7 7 

ssp. solanara 

7 7 

ssp. solanara 

D. bisaltide .... 

ssp. tonganus 

H. errabunda .... 




H. antilope .... 

ssp. lutescens 

ssp. lutescens 

H. bolina .... 

ssp. inconstans 

ssp. pallescens 

ssp. pallescens 

P. •villida .... 

ssp. samoensis 

ssp. villida 

ssp. villida 

I. sinha ..... 

ssp. bowdenia 

ssp. bowdenia 

ssp. bowdenia 

A. exulans . . . 




P. godeffroyi .... 




C. jacquinotii .... 

ssp. manaia 

ssp. manaia 

ssp. manaia ..... 



ssp. schmeltzi 

1 . hecabe .... 

ssp. apnea 

D. epijarbas .... 

ssp. dons 


ssp. armstrongi 

J. argentina .... 



J. carissima .... 


J. morphoides .... 


C. cnejus 

ssp. samoa 

ssp. samoa 

ssp. samoa 

C. lithargyrea . ... 

ssp. j?e£>e 

ssp. ;pepe 


iV. vitiensis . . . . 

ssp. samoensis 

ssp. samoensis 

ssp. samoensis 

Z. alsulus 



Z. labradus .... 




T.fraseri .... 



B. exclamationis 




Specific Descriptions 

1. Danaida archippus (F.). 

Danaida archippus ; Fruhstorfer, 1910, p. 193. 
Danais archippus ; Butler, 1874, p. 275. 

Rebel, 1910, p. 416. 

Schmeltz, p. 177. 
Danais plexippus L. ; Fraser, p. 147, 
Anosia plexippus ; Butler, 1883, p. 408. 
Danaida plexippus ; Walker, p. 187. 

Collenette, 1925. 
Anosia menippe ; Waterhouse, 1904, p. 491. 

Swezey, 1921, p. 601. 
Danais erippus ; Semper, 1905, p. 247. 

Walker, who gives an excellent summary of the known history of this 
species in the Pacific, states (p. 187) that it was first noted in Tonga in 1863, 
in Tutuila in 1867, and in Western Samoa not until 1869. There appear to be 
no previous records from the Ellice Islands, but on Nui Island in September 
1924 Buxton saw a specimen feeding on Iron-tree (Pemphis acidula), while he 
also noticed the butterfly as well as its food-plant on Vaitupu Island ; both 
islands are in the Ellice group. Collenette's notes on the species tend to show 
that it is becoming much less common in some parts of the Pacific, probably on 
account of the decrease in abundance of its food-plant, Asclepias curassavica L. 
This may also be true in Tonga, where I found both the butterfly and its food- 
plant by no means common, though, so far as my investigations went, generally 
distributed ; Schmeltz (I.e. p. 70), records it from Niuafou also. In Samoa, 
however, the insect is very abundant, occurring commonly at sea-level through- 
out the group, and extending up into the hills wherever clearing has allowed 
the Asclepias to become common. 

The larvae sometimes entirely defoliate the plant, and are reduced to 
eating the stalks and seed-capsules ; thus they may be of some slight economic 
use as a check on this obnoxious weed. The adult frequents the flowers of 
Ageratum coryzoides L. (Compositae), Lantana camara L., Stachytarpheta indica 
Vahl. (Verbenaceae), and its own food-plant. 

The early stages, which may be found throughout the year, are too well- 
known to require description. 



2 (a). Danaida (Tirumala) melissa melittula (H.S.). 

Banais melittula ; Herrich-Schaeffer, 1869, p. 70 (Upolu Island). 
Schmeltz, pp. 175-177. 
Butler, 1847, p. 275. 
Rebel, 1910, p. 415, PI. XVIII, fig. 4. 
Tirumala melittula ; Waterhouse, 1904, p. 492. 

Moore, p. 233. 
Swezey, 1921, p. 602. 
Danaida melissa melittula ; Fruhstorfer, 1910, p. 203. 

Poulton, pp. 604-606. 
Danais melissa ; Butler, 1870, p. 360. 
" Miniature edition of Tirumala hamata " ; Fraser, p. 147. 

As has been pointed out by several authors, the Samoan record of 
D. obscurata Butler is certainly erroneous. It is due to the fact that the type 
specimens from the Solomons were unfortunately labelled Upolu as well. The 
form is quite distinct from any found in Samoa. 

D. m. melittula (PI. II, fig. 3) is found in all the islands of Western Samoa, 
where it is always common, and frequently very abundant, from sea-level to 
about 800 feet, and, as a straggler, up to 2,000 feet. In American Samoa it is 
replaced by the closely-allied D. melissa tutuilae. It is found in greatest numbers 
on the flowers of Ageratum coryzoides L., but is also fond of those of Stachytar- 
pheta indica ; Rechinger states that it prefers the flowers of Asclepias curassavica, 
but I am not able to confirm this. It flies in mist or light rain, but is not on 
the wing until after 7 a.m., and does not become fully active even in sunshine 
until after 8 a.m. ; it remains on the wing until dusk. Among captured 
specimens males outnumber females by at least five to one. 

There does not appear to be any difference in markings or in size between 
specimens from the various islands of Western Samoa ; in a series of 49 males 
from Upolu and 43 from Savai'i, the maximum, mean and minimum expanse 
are 82, 72, and 62 mm. for Upolu, and 78, 72, and 62 mm. for Savai'i ; ignoring 
one abnormally large specimen from Malololelei, Upolu, the figures for the two 
islands are identical. Females are very slightly smaller, the corresponding 
figures for a series of 21 specimens from the two islands being 78, 71, and 62 mm. 
The race appears to be confined to Western Samoa, but the species has a wide 


distribution through the Indo-Malayan region, and occurs in many races in 
the islands of the Pacific. The present race appears to be the smallest known 
form of the species. 

The eggs, which are laid singly on the underside of a leaf of Tylophora 
samoensis A. Gr. (Asclepiadaceae), are creamy white and barrel-shaped, with 
about 14 longitudinal ribs, each of which is joined to its neighbour by about 
19 narrow transverse • bars ; the height is about 1*35 mm. and the diameter 
0*76 mm. 

The head of the larva (PI. IV, fig. 1) is black, except two broad transverse 
bands and the labrum, which are white. The body above the spiracles is white, 
with one broad and two or three narrow black transverse bands on each seg- 
ment ; below the spiracles the colour is orange-brown. Spiracles, legs and 
prolegs are black. There is a pair of black fleshy filaments on the mesothorax, 
and another pair on the eighth abdominal segment. Eggs and larvae were 
found in June and September. 

The pupa (PI. IV, fig. 2) is much more compressed in shape than that of 
D. archippus, and of a beautiful translucent jade-green, totally different from 
the waxy green of that of archippus ; the girdle and a few minute dots on the 
dorsal surface are golden, and the cremaster and two small spots on the ventral 
surface black. 

2 (b). Danaida (Tirumala) melissa tutuilae, ssp. n. 
Danais melittula ; Schmeltz, p. 175. 

Rebel, 1910, p. 415. 

Differs from melittula in both sexes owing to its much larger size and more 
extensive blue markings. The latter feature is best seen in the state of develop- 
ment of the hook-shaped marking formed by the coalescence of the blue streak 
along the inner margin of the forewing with the blue spot external to it, and of 
this latter with the spot internal to it and anterior to the streak. The extent 
of this coalescence varies in both the forms, and the hook may be " Complete " 
(PI. II, fig. 1), "Incomplete" (PI. II, fig. 2), or "Absent"; I call it incom- 
plete when the streak is attached to the external spot, but the latter is not 
joined in turn to the internal one, or when the two spots are joined to one 
another but not to the streak. In a series of one hundred and twelve specimens 
of D. m. melittula from Upolu and Savai'i, the hook is complete in seventeen 
males and nine females, incomplete in seventeen males and five females, and 



absent in fifty-eight males and six females ; in a series of forty-eight specimens 
of D. melissa tutuilae, all from Tutuila, it is complete in eleven males and 
seven females, incomplete in twelve males and four females, and absent in thirteen 
males and one female. That is to say, the hook, absent in 63 per cent, of 
males of D. m. melittula, is developed to some extent in 64 per cent, of male D. 
melissa tutuilae ; the difference in the females is not so great, and the numbers 
are rather small. The difference in size between the two races is much more 
striking than that of markings ; the maximum, mean, and minimum expanse 
of thirty-five males of D. melissa tutuilae being 88, 80, and 71 mm. as against 
78, 72, and 62 mm. for D. m. melittula, and of eleven females 86, 79, and 74 mm. 
as against 78, 71, and 62 mm. for the same sex of the latter. 

As will be seen from the above figures, among captured specimens, males are 
much commoner than females, though to a less extent than in D. m. melittula, 
outnumbering them by only about three to one instead of by about five to one 
as in the latter. The difference, although I do not think it probable, may 
possibly be seasonal, since most of the specimens from Tutuila were captured 
in August. If not seasonal, it is very interesting in view of the fact that the 
proportions of the sexes in Hypolimnas bolina show an exactly opposite difference 
in the two parts of Samoa, females being very much commoner in Western 
Samoa than they are in Tutuila. 

D. melissa tutuilae is very common at low elevations in Tutuila, and pro- 
bably throughout American Samoa. In habits the race exactly resembles 
D. m. melittula, but even in flight is readily separated by its superior size. I 
have no knowledge of the early stages. 

2 (c). Danaida (Tirumala) melissa angustata (Moore). 
Tirumala angustata ; Butler, 1883, p. 408. 
Danaida melissa angustata ; Fruhstorfer, 1910, p. 203. 

Poulton, pp. 604-609. 

At the time of my visit in February and March, 1925, this appeared to be 
a very rare insect in Tonga, and only two specimens were seen, both at 
Nukualofa, Togatabu ; Armstrong, in March 1926, did not meet with it, nor 
did Mrs. Cockerell in July 1924. It was evidently commoner during Mathew's 
visit in July 1884, since he captured four specimens at Nukualofa during the 
single day on which he was there ; the difference may possibly be seasonal. 
There do not appear to be any records from the other islands of the Tongan 


group, and the form does not occur elsewhere. Schmeltz's records of D. melittula 
and D. neptunia from Togatabu (1876, pp. 175 and 177) presumably refer to 
this race. 

Poulton suggests (p. 607) that the somewhat reduced pattern may give the 
form a superficial resemblance to the much commoner E. eleutho matheivi when 
on the wing ; the markings do not seem dissimilar in flight, but D. melissa 
angustata appears quite blue, while E. eleutho mathewi looks very white. 
Possibly the female (which in this group of Danaines is usually of a considerably 
paler blue than the male) would show more resemblance to the Euploea. 

3 (a). Euploea eleutho bourkei (Poulton). 
Euploea eleutho ; Schmeltz, p. 180. 

Moore, p. 272. 
Nipara helcita ; Moore, p. 258. 
Euploea eleutho escholtzi ; Swezey, 1921, p. 602. 
Euploea helcita bourkei ; Poulton, p. 585. 

Talbot (p. 26) has recently cleared up the confusion between E. " eleutho" 
never found east of 150° E. longitude, and E. " helcita," which does not occur 
to the west of 160° E. : he has shown that the error is to be traced back to 
Boisduval, the following of whose mistake by various later authors accounts 
for the records of E. eleutho from Samoa, Tonga, the Ellice Islands, etc., in all 
of which it has certainly never occurred in its typical form. Talbot also pointed 
out that the two " species " were probably only geographical races of one, of 
which the prior name is eleutho. The main difference between the two " species " 
is the presence in eleutho of a sexual brand, absent in "helcita" : that Talbot's 
view is correct is shown by the specimens of E. eleutho bourkei (described below) 
which had well-developed brands. The existence of specimens of bourkei, taken 
on the same day and within a few yards of each other, some with brands and 
some without, shows (if further proof were needed) how utterly fallacious is 
the use of the male brands as generic or sub-generic characters in Euploea. 
The forms of eleutho with brands and those without, which were formerly placed 
in different genera, are now shown to occur, not only in the same species, but 
in the same geographical race of that species ! Felder's E. eleutho escholtzi is a 
Fijian race, and the Samoan record of it is erroneous. E. aglaina, a form with 
much reduced white markings, was described by Fruhstorfer (1908, p. 276, PI. 86a) 
as occurring in Tutuila, but, as pointed out by Poulton, this is almost certainly 



erroneous. If the label be correct, it must be a very rare aberration, for there are 
no specimens showing the least approach to it in any of the collections examined, 
nor in the long series collected by me in Tutuila ; on the other hand, judging from 
Fruhstorfer's figure, which does not agree with his description, it almost exactly 
resembles specimens from the Cook Islands, which are its probable habitat. As, 
mentioned by Poulton (p. 586), there is in the British Museum a " Male walkeri, 
with the hindwing pattern of escholtzi" labelled Navigators' Islands ; this has 
the grey suffusion of the underside typical of bourkei and mathewi, and is probably 
correctly labelled, but there are no specimens showing any approach to this 
pattern in the very long series of other Samoan examples examined by me. 

Variation is not extensive, but the spots on the hindwing are slightly more 
developed in some specimens than in others. Females always have the ground- 
colour paler than males, but do not seem to exhibit better developed spots. 
The most interesting point about the race, however, is the occurrence of males 
with a sexual brand, a feature never recorded before in any race of " helcita." 
Of twenty-six males captured by Buxton and myself in Tutuila, seven have 
a well-developed brand (PI. Ill, figs 9 and 10), and two more show a trace of 
one, so that more than a third of the specimens have the brand developed to 
some extent. As might be expected in what is evidently a vestigial and 
obsolescent structure, the brand varies very much in size, but I have never 
seen a trace of it in the hundreds of male " helcita " from Tonga and other 
groups in the neighbourhood of Samoa that I have examined. 

The maximum, mean and minimum expanse of twenty-six males are 82, 
74, and 66 mm., and of fourteen females 76, 70, and 65 mm. 

Common in Tutuila Island, American Samoa, at Pago-Pago, Leone, and 
other localities at or near sea-level, frequenting the flowers of Ageratum coryzoides 
and Stachytarpheta ; there are also three specimens in the collection from Tau 
Island, American Samoa. It is very easily distinguished from E. schmeltzi, 
even on the wing, by its much darker colour and larger white spots. This form 
does not occur in Western Samoa ; the types were stated by Poulton to be from 
" Apia and Tutuila " (E. Bourke) and " Apia and Pago-Pago " (G. F. Mathew), 
but Mathew, on referring to his note-book, found that all his Samoan specimens 
of the species were from Pago-Pago, and it is quite certain that Bourke' s speci- 
mens also came from there, since he lumped the two localities together. 

As represented by its several races, this is one of the most widely-distributed 
butterflies in the Pacific Islands, often occurring on atolls which support no 


other butterfly-life except H. bolina and P. villida. Forms without a brand 
are found from Tahiti in the east to the New Hebrides and New Caledonia 
in the west, and (as stated above) are replaced still farther west by the form 
with a brand (typical eleutho). 

The larva (PI. IV, fig. 5), in addition to the two pairs of fleshy filaments 
borne by the caterpillars of E. schmeltzi and D. melittula, has a pair of these 
processes on the metathorax and second abdominal segment respectively. In 
colour it is brown-olive above, with a pair of small diamond-shaped white spots 
on each segment ; the head is black, marked with two white bands ; the black 
spiracles are borne on a broad cream-coloured spiracular line ; the legs are 
black, the first pair much reduced ; the filaments plum-coloured. The speci- 
men figured is not quite full-grown. The larva feeds on Ficus tinctoria Forst., 
and doubtless also on other species of the same genus. 

3 (b). Euploea eleutho mathewi (Poulton). 
Nipara eleutho ; Butler, 1883, p. 408. 
Euploea helcita mathewi ; Poulton, p. 586. 

This race, the Tongan representative of E. eleutho, was found commonly 
in all the localities visited in that group. It has a somewhat bolder flight than 
E. schmeltzi, and in the evening, about 5.30 to 6 p.m., may be met with flying 
low, apparently in preparation for roosting for the night. At these times the 
butterfly circles round close to the ground, often settling on bushes and trees, or 
on dead fallen leaves. Mathew records it (Poulton, p. 607) as roosting in flocks, 
as do many species of the genus. Apparently it is not attracted to Stachytarpheta 
flowers, but is fond of those of Ageratum ; I suspect that the former only attract 
butterflies in the absence of more attractive flowers. Like other species of 
Euploea it has a habit of settling on the dead twigs and branches of Tournefortia 
(Buxton, 1926, Hopkins, 1926), but, as in the other cases, this seems to apply 
only to the males, females not being found at this tree. Males are in general 
more often captured than females, but I am not able to give exact figures. 

Variation is not extensive, but there is an interesting difference between 
specimens from Togatabu and those from Vavau : in mathewi the sub-terminal 
spots of the hindwing are usually fused in pairs, and in most specimens from 
Togatabu this is found to be the case ; in Vavau specimens, on the other hand, 
though this form is common, there is a definite tendency for the spots in question 
to be separate. It would appear that we have here the beginning of the 


separation of a new race, which, however, has not yet proceeded far enough 
to render the forms separable. The maximum, mean, and minimum expanse 
of seventy-one males from both localities are 84, 77, and 72 mm., and of eleven 
females 82, 77, and 70 mm. This race, unlike E. e. bourkei, has the female 
more heavily spotted than the male. 

The chief food-plant is a large tree, the Tongan sacred fig, the local name 
for which is Ovava, but I also saw a female ovipositing on Ficus tinctoria, so 
that probably any species of Ficus is acceptable. 

The black areas of the wings evidently contain a pigment, not present in 
the white areas, which is distasteful to some other creatures. On the way to 
England a batch of Tongan butterflies, which included many specimens of 
the present species, was attacked and partially destroyed by Dipterous larvae ; 
in the case of specimens of E. eleutho mathewi, the white markings were eaten 
away while the black parts were left untouched (PI. Ill, fig. 8). 

3 (c). Euploea eleutho distincta (Butler). 
Nipara distincta ; Butler, 1874, p. 278. 
Euploea eleutho ; Butler, 1878, p. 296. 

Moore, p. 272. 
Euploea helcita distincta ; Fruhstorfer, 1910, p. 235. 
Euploea helcita ivalkeri ; Poulton, p. 582. 

We obtained this form only in the Ellice group, where Buxton captured a 
series of thirteen males and nine females on the islands of Nui, Nanomaga, 
Niutao and Nukulailai ; he did not see it on Funafuti, and Rainbow does not 
record it from there, but it is possible that Whitmee's specimens, referred to 
below, are from this island, since the name " Ellice Is.," now generally applied 
to the whole group, was formerly used for Funafuti only. Of the specimens 
captured by Buxton, all are typical E. eleutho distincta except the two males 
from Nukulailai, both of which have the white pattern much reduced ; in one 
of them the reduction affects both wings equally, but in the other the hind- 
wing pattern is almost obsolete, the inner row of spots showing more reduction 
than the outer, while on the fore wing the spots, though obscured by dark 
suffusion, are larger than in the first specimen. Unfortunately these are the 
only two specimens captured on this island. Of two males and three females 
in the British Museum, labelled "Ellice Is., Whitmee," both males and two 
females are typical E. e. distincta; the third female is almost identical on the upper- 


side with Tutuila specimens, but on the underside there is no trace of the greyish 
suffusion so characteristic of the latter, so that I see no reason to suppose that it 
is incorrectly labelled. The form, however, would appear to be uncommon. 
A large male in the British Museum labelled " Atafu, Union Is., J. J. Lister " 
(apparently the only record of a Euploea from this group), is like the better- 
marked specimens from the Ellice group in pattern, and E. e. distincta also 
appears to be the common form in Wallis Island (Poulton, p. 584, PL XLII, 
figs. 8-10). Maximum, mean, and minimum expanse of specimens from the 
Ellice Is. are : male 81, 75*5, and 72 mm. ; female 77, 72, and 68 mm. 

The larva was found on a species of Ficus, which grows either as an 
independent plant, or as an epiphyte in a tuft of fern on a coconut palm. 
Unfortunately it was not preserved. 

Buxton notes that the flight of the adult in the Ellice Is. is not at all like 
that of E. schmeltzi, being much more soaring, and that the insect makes long 
flights from tree to tree ; this is also true of the races of E. eleutho found in Tutuila 
and in Tonga. The butterfly was fond of sitting on the broad leaves of various 
trees, and was not common except in Nui. 

4. Euploea schmeltzi schmeltzi (H.S.). 

Euploea schmeltzi ; Herrich-Schaeffer, 1869, p. 70, PI. II, fig. 8. 
Butler, 1874, p. 277. 
Fruhstorfer, 1910, p. 241. 
Rebel, 1910, p. 416, PI. XVIII, figs. 2 and 3. 
Euploea schmeltzii ; Schmeltz, 1876, p. 181. 

Pagenstecher, p. 302. 
Deragena schmeltzii ; Fraser, p. 147. 

Moore, p. 272. 
Waterhouse, 1904, p. 492. 
Deragena schmeltzi ; Swezey, 1921, p. 602. 
Euploea schmeltzii schmeltzii ; Poulton, p. 596. 

This species occurs very commonly in Western Samoa with D. m. melittula, 
and frequents the same kinds of flowers, but in addition it is found in flocks of 
many hundreds on Toumefortia argentea L. (Boraginaceae), a common strand 
tree (Buxton, 1926, Hopkins, 1926). All the specimens captured on this tree 
(several dozen in number) turned out to be males ; Armstrong on one occasion 
saw " About 150 on one dead branch below the tree, all males." Trees of the 



same genus are very attractive to Euploea mathewi in Tonga, and to several 
species of Euploea in the New Hebrides (Buxton) and the Solomons (Woodford, 
1890, p. 94). In all these cases it is noticeable that only males are attracted, 
though both sexes frequent flowers, and that it is not the flowers but the dead 
and withering twigs and branches that are attractive. I once saw many 
hundreds of Euploea sclimeltzi on the fruit- clusters of T. argentea in Savai'i, but 
even in this case it was the dead and withered clusters that were preferred. 
The tree does not seem to be attractive to any other butterflies, except 
moderately so to males of D. m. melittula, and it is difficult to imagine in what 
the attraction lies ; no exudation of any sort was observed. Since the 
attraction is almost confined to males of the genus Euploea, it seems not 
impossible that the scent may resemble that of a virgin female, and that the 
volume of it is sufficiently great to make up for slight differences, and hence 
make it attractive, not to one species of Euploea only, but to many. It should 
be noted that this habit is quite distinct from that of roosting in flocks, which 
is so common in the genera Euploea and Danaida. In Tonga, in addition to 
seeing the males of E. mathewi on Tournefortia, I was able to find both sexes 
going to roost in the evening about half a mile inland ; they did not appear to 
show a preference for any particular tree, and there were no specimens of 
Tournefortia in the neighbourhood, this tree being entirely confined to the 
beach. The case seems to some extent parallel with the attraction of isoeugenol 
and methyleugenol for certain Trypetidae, and of naphtha and kerosene for 
Ceratitis captitata ; this also has not yet found a satisfactory explanation, but 
has been attributed to some form of sex-stimulus, since in this instance also it 
is the males only that are attracted. 

Variation is considerable in both sexes, both in size and markings, but 
all forms may be taken together at the same time and place. The white markings 
on the upperside are usually much better developed in the female than in the 
male ; the reduction of pattern, especially in the latter sex, may go so far as to 
leave no indication of the white markings except the short row of sub-apical 
spots, while on the other hand all the markings may be well developed. In 
some specimens the forewing pattern is well developed, and that of the hindwing 
almost obsolete. My largest specimen is 69 mm. in expanse, and my smallest 
60 mm. ; both are males. 

On the 7th April, 1924, Buxton observed a very interesting flight of this 
species in the district of Aleipata, Upolu Island. At about 9 a.m. he found the 


12 3 4 MILES 

butterflies in numbers flying out from the mainland towards the small out- 
lying islands of Namua and Nuutele (Text-fig. 1). As there was no perceptible 
wind, and the directions of the flights to the two islands were nearly at right angles, 
he concludes that the islands must have been visible to the butterflies from the 
shore, a distance of more than a mile in 
the case of Nuutele. There does not appear 
to be any other possible explanation of the 

The form is found commonly through- 
out Western Samoa, but we did not 
meet with it in Tutuila ; Schmeltz (p. 
181), however, records a specimen from 
there; Eechinger (Eebel, 1910, p. 417) 
gives Tutuila as one of the localities 
where he observed it ; and Poulton (p. 
606) states that Mathew found " Euploea 
[helcita bourkei and schmeltzi] " at Pago- 
Pago. The names in brackets were 
added by Poulton, who informs me that the original record merely gives the 
genus and no specific names ; there can be no doubt that the species referred to 
was E. eleutho bourkei. Rechinger's record is equally unsatisfactory ; all the 
specimens (twelve in number) brought home by him were from localities in 
Upolu and Savai'i, nor were any of his specimens of other species of butterflies 
taken in Tutuila (Rebel gives full particulars of the number captured in each 
locality and the total number obtained), so that it is obvious that he did not 
collect in Tutuila at all, but merely saw a species of Euploea (which must have 
been E. eleutho bourkei) and assumed that it was E. s. schmeltzi. This is further 
borne out by the fact that he did not capture either E. e. bourkei or the male of 
Hypolimnas bolina, although these are the commonest butterflies in Tutuila. 
There are no specimens from Tutuila in the British Museum, and I think 
we are justified in ignoring Schmeltz's old record, and stating that 
E. e. schmeltzi is entirely confined to Western Samoa. Outside Samoa its 
nearest relative is E. schmeltzi ivhitmei (Butl.), which occurs in the Loyalty 
Islands. These closely related forms are widely separated geographically, 

Text-figuee 1. — Coast -line in the Aleipata 
district of Upolo Island, Samoa, show- 
ing lines of flight of Euploea schmeltzi 
from mainland to outlying islands. 

III. 1 

* See p. 46 for a similar habit of Catophoga jacquinotii manaia. 




and no connecting forms nave yet been described ; the intervening islands 
are, however, so little known that it is quite possible that such forms exist 
on them, but have not yet been met with. 

The egg is barrel-shaped, 1*6 mm. in height and 1*0 mm. in diameter, pale 
yellow, with some twenty-four longitudinal and about the same number of 
transverse ribs dividing the surface up into roughly rectangular areas, which 
are more irregular towards the apex. The shell is particularly soft, and the egg 
is easily crushed. The ova are laid singly on the upper or underside of a leaf 
of the food-plant, Ficus tinctoria Forst., a common bush which grows either 
as an epiphyte in the crowns of Pandanus and other trees, or as an independent 
plant. The butterfly is not strictly confined to this species, but sometimes 
selects other members of the genus Ficus. ■ 

The larva spins a pad of silk on the leaf to improve its foothold. When 
young it is green, with a pale yellow sub-spiracular line ; head, legs, prolegs 
and two pairs of fleshy filaments, one on the mesothorax, the other on the 
eighth abdominal segment, are black. The full-grown larva (PL IV, fig. 3) 
is about 30 mm. long, and varies considerably in colour ; the form found 
invariably in a wild state has the body, legs, and prolegs glaucous-green ; the 
head is pale brown, with two pale green lines ; there is a broad pale yellow 
sub-spiracular line, and the spiracles are black ; the fleshy filaments, which are 
large in proportion to the size of the larva, are purplish-brown in colour. When 
larvae are reared in captivity, either from eggs or from very young caterpillars, 
the commonest form when full-grown is very dark, almost black, with a yellow 
sub-spiracular line and black filaments ; a modification of this form has the 
head black, the body above the yellow sub-spiracular line deep black with 
one rather broad and three broken and rather narrow white transverse bands 
on each segment, and spiracles, filaments, legs and prolegs black. Almost all 
larvae in captivity are of one of these dark forms, unless captured when already 
half-grown. A parallel case is that of Macroglossa hirundo samoana Roths, 
and Jord. (Sphingidae) ; here, also, there are two main types of coloration 
in the larva, one of which is green and the other dark. The dark form varies 
considerably, but is more or less as follows : brown-red above, under surface 
dark brown approaching black ; head, legs, and prolegs black ; blackish mid- 
dorsal and supraspiracular lines, the space between these lines broken up into 
square blocks of brown-red by dark brown intersegmental lines ; spiracles 
black ; whole of upper part of body thickly covered with small white dots ; 


horn red, with a black tip. At various times I had about fifty of these larvae 
reared from eggs, besides some thirty others found when nearly full-grown ; 
all the latter were of the green form, while of the former all but one or two at 
the most were dark. It is difficult to account for this difference in colour 
between wild and captive larvae, unless it be an effect of the conditions of higher 
relative humidity under which the latter are usually kept. 

The pupa (PI. IV, fig. 4) is attached by the tail to a pad of silk on the underside 
of a leaf of the food-plant. It is usually metallic gold in colour ; the eyes, 
antennae, a broad lateral band, a broad transverse band on the fourth abdominal 
segment, and two narrow dorsolateral lines from this latter to the cremaster are 
brown ; there are also small brown blotches on the wing-cases. The golden colour 
may or may not show a greenish tinge, and there is also a form of the pupa 
which is silvery in colour instead of golden. In a few cases dark larvae gave 
golden pupae, and green larvae silvery ones, but the instances were too few to 
indicate whether this is usual. The pupal stage usually lasts eight days. 

Early stages were found in every month from June to December. 

5. Acraea andromacha polynesiaca Rebel. 
Acraea andromacha ; Schmeltz, p. 186. 
Acraea andromache ; Pagenstecher, p. 302. 

Acraea andromache polynesiaca ; Rebel, 1910, p. 417, PI. XVIII, fig. 1. 

Described by Rebel from specimens collected at Tiavi, Upolu Island, Samoa. 
The author states that it differs from the nomino-typical form as follows : 
" A little larger, and the yellow spots between the veins in the black marginal 
band of the hindwing are distinctly larger and more in line. The black spots 
in the lower part of the transverse branch in cell 4 of the hindwing are generally 
smaller and obsolescent. Forewings 29-35 mm., against 26-32 mm. in the 
typical form." In a long series from various parts of Western Samoa there 
is much variation in size, from a maximum of 71 to a minimum of 50 mm. In 
other respects the form is very constant, though there is slight variation in the 
size of the spots in the marginal band of the hindwing. 

Usually rare in Samoa, though found throughout the year, but not at all 
uncommon in May, June and July, 1924, at various localities between 1,000 and 
2,000 feet in Upolu (Vailima and Malololelei) and in Savai'i, where it was 
common locally at 1,500-1,800 feet. It also occurs as a straggler right down to 
sea-level (Apia and Lalomanu), but is never common there. I have no records 



of the species from Tutuila, but it might easily be overlooked. There is a 
specimen in the British Museum labelled Togatabu (apparently the only record 
of the species from Tonga), and it also occurs in Fiji. 

The flight is lazy and floating, resembling that of a Danaida, but much 
weaker. The insect has, however, a habit of keeping fifteen to twenty feet above 
the ground, which renders it much less easy to catch than it otherwise would be. 

The eggs are laid in batches of about 80 on the upperside of a leaf 
of Passiflora samoensis Exell, and are barrel-shaped and cream-coloured, with 
about 20 inconspicuous longitudinal ridges broken by numerous shallow 
transverse lines ; diameter 0*77 mm., height 0"87 mm. The egg stage lasts 
at least five days. 

The larvae (PL IV, fig. 10) are blackish, with head, legs and spines black ; 
spines long, slightly branched, one pair on thorax, penultimate and last segments, 
three pairs on all the other segments. They feed in companies, and the pupae are 
often found together in fair numbers. Before starting to devour the leaf, the 
young larvae eat a large part of the egg-shell ; they then begin on the leaf, eating 
either surface. The larval stage lasts about a fortnight. 

The pupae (PI. IV, fig. 11) are placed in rows on a stem of the creeper ; 
they are creamy-white in colour, with mid-ventral and paired dorsolateral and 
spiracular broad broken black bands ; these bands are composed of a rounded 
blotch, enclosing a yellow spot, on each segment of the abdomen ; eye, leg and 
proboscis-sheaths black, wing-sheaths white, striped longitudinally with black ; 
on the thorax the dorsolateral black bands are replaced by a pair of narrow 
black lines placed mid-dorsally, and fused together posteriorly. The duration 
of the pupal stage is ten days. 

Early stages were found in May, June and July. 

6. Melanitis leda solandra (F.) 

Papilio solandra Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Ent. p. 500 (taken " in Insula 

Otaheity "^Tahiti). 
Melanitis leda var. solandra ; Butler, 1874, p. 279. 
Melanitis leda ; Fraser, p. 148. 

Waterhouse, 1904, p. 494. 
Swezey, 1921, p. 604. 
Melanitis taitensis ; Butler, 1883, p. 409. 
Melanitis leda taitensis ; Schmeltz, p. 183. 

Rebel, 1910, p. 419. 


Specimens of this species from Samoa and Tonga do not appear separable 
from each other, or from the Tahitian form. All that I have seen from both 
groups are of the wet-season form, but two males and a female from Tonga 
in the British Museum, and five males taken by me in Togatabu in March 
1925, are somewhat transitional towards the dry-season form. There is much 
variation both in size and markings in specimens from all localities, but I have 
not been able to find any racial or seasonal relation in the variation, and as the 
numbers are small I do not give the figures. The largest and smallest speci- 
mens that I have seen from the area are both males, and were taken by Whitmee 
in Samoa, but the exact locality is not given. One male in the British Museum 
from Tutuila, 23.iv.03 (M. J. Nicoll), is entirely without markings on the upper- 
side, except a faint patch of yellowish suffusion in the position usually occupied 
by the yellow sub-apical blotch. 

Never a common species in the neighbourhood of Apia, but rather com- 
mon in neglected coconut plantations in the Aleipata district of Upolu, in 
several localities in Savai'i, and in Tutuila, it also occurs in Tau and probably 
throughout the Samoan group. It is also common in Tonga at Nukualofa, and 
doubtless many other localities ; there are in the British Museum several speci- 
mens from Vavau, taken by the Eclipse Expedition, in April 1911. Outside 
our area the species is widely distributed in the Pacific, but does not seem to 
be recorded from any of the groups to the north or north-west of Samoa. 
It is not strictly confined to sea-level, but occurs commonly in some places up 
to 1,000 feet or more. It is mainly crepuscular in its habits, but odd specimens 
are often found flying by day, especially in shady places. 

Egg. — A female was seen ovipositing (, Apia district) on the under- 
side of a blade of grass ; only two eggs were laid. These were of a very pale 
green colour, and to the naked eye appeared perfectly smooth, but under a 
microscope proved to be covered with reticulation in very low relief ; they were 
hemispherical in shape, and 12 mm. in diameter. Larvae emerged four days 
later, but refused to feed. 

The newly-hatched larva is almost white, with a black head. Swezey 
records finding the larvae of this species twice on sugar-cane in Samoa ; this, 
however, is evidently not the usual food-plant there, for the butterfly is found 
commonly in districts where no sugar-cane is grown. Schmeltz (p. 191) states 
that " The larva lives on Cyperaceae, and is green with two horn-like processes 
on the head." 



7. Doleschallia bisaltide tongana, nom. nov. 
Papilio drusius Fabricius, 1781, Sp. Ins., p. 61, no. 272. 

This form was described by Fabricius from two males taken at Rotterdam 
Island (=Namuka in the Tongan group), but this name is preoccupied by 
Papilio drusius Cramer, described in 1779. 

It is closely related to the Fijian D. b. vomana Fruhst., from which it differs 
as follows : Male (PI. II, fig. 4), upperside ground-colour brighter tawny, 
the fifth of the small white spots forming the sub-apical series on forewing 
always completely obscured by a large tawny spot, which is united to the short 
sub-apical tawny band ; hindwings much paler than in D. b. vomana, with little 
dark suffusion and with all the dark markings reduced. Underside as in 
D. b. vomana, but in all the specimens I have seen the ground-colour is a reddish- 
brown, without any trace of the green sometimes found in Fijian specimens. 
Five males from Neiafu, Vavau group, Tonga, March 1925, agree well with the 

The female is undescribed : it is similar to the male, but ground-colour 
paler and all dark markings less extensive. Type female from Tonga (G. F. 
Matheiv), Godman and Salvin collection, in B.M. ; one paratype from Neiafu, 
March 1925. 

Both sexes are smaller than Fijian specimens (expanse of male 63-71 mm., 
mean of seven specimens 68 mm., and of female 74 mm.). Variation is slight, 
affecting chiefly the proportions of the tawny band on the forewings ; in four 
of my males and both the females this extends from the costa to join the ground- 
colour as in the types ; in only one is the fifth spot of the sub-apical series not 
connected with the tawny band. 

This insect was rather common on Talau Hill, Neiafu, during February 
and March 1925, and Armstrong saw a single specimen there in March 1926. 
It patrols back and forth over a chosen stretch of open ground, such as a path, 
with a strong and rapid flight, usually keeping at a height of ten to fifteen feet 
from the ground, and occasionally settling on leaves, though usually fairly high. 
It did not seem to be attracted to flowers. On one occasion I saw one give 
chase to a large hornet (Polistes macaensis F.), and they constantly flew at other 
specimens of their own species as if to drive them off the chosen territory. One 
of the captured specimens had a large symmetrical injury to the hindwings, 
which must have been caused by the bite of either a bird or a lizard. 

The early stages are unknown. 


8. Hypolimnas errabunda, sp. n. 

Male (PL II, fig. 5). Upperside very dark brown, apical third of fore- 
wing and a broad terminal border strongly suffused with red-brown ; a series 
of three very small preapical white dots in interspaces 5-7 ; hindwing with a 
broad ochreous-brown sub-terminal border. Underside brown, apical third 
of f orewing and a very broad postdiscal band on hindwing paler ; preapical 
white dots larger than on upperside, and continued as a postdiscal series of 
dark-ringed bluish-white spots on both wings ; sub-terminal and terminal 
narrow dark lines ; in cell of forewing a triangular white spot, followed by three 
rather irregular white lines. Cilia white, alternated with black. 

Female (PI. II, fig. 6) similar, but paler ; on upperside preapical dots much 
larger than in male, and continued as a postdiscal series of white spots in all 
the interspaces of forewing, and very faintly in interspaces 5-7 of hindwing ; 
on underside markings as in male, but postdiscal white spots much larger and 
not bluish. Cilia as in male. 

Type male from Malololelei, Upolu Island, 2,000 feet, 27.iv.24, allotype 
female from same locality 4.V.24 ; 9 male and 4 female paratypes from same 
locality, various dates. Maximum, mean and minimum expanse of males (exclud- 
ing two bred specimens) 77, 72, and 66 mm., of females 92, 87, and 82 mm. 

Variation is very slight ; in the male the postdiscal series of white dots 
is sometimes very faintly developed on the upperside in some of the interspaces 
of both wings, and there is slight variation in the width of the ochreous-brown 
subterminal border of the hindwing, and in the development of the red-brown 
suffusion of the forewing ; in the female the spots in interspaces 2 and 3 of the 
hindwing upperside (never very distinct) are sometimes almost obsolete. The 
underside is almost invariable in both sexes. 

An uncommon species and never seen below 2,000 feet, although the food- 
plant occurs down to 1,000 feet and probably below. Only found in Upolu 
Island at Malololelei, Lake Lanuto'o, and probably other localities at high 
elevations, though the food-plant is common in Tutuila. Both sexes frequent 
the flowers of Lantana. The colour and markings give this insect a distinct 
resemblance to Euploea schmeltzi, but the female is very much too large to be 
mistaken for that species. In the male, however, owing to its much smaller 
size, the resemblance is much greater, and it is quite possible to mistake one 
species for the other on the wing. Odd specimens (sometimes only one) were 


seen in every month from January to July, but not on visits paid to the same 
locality in August, September, October and December ; it is not at all impro- 
bable, however, that H. errabunda occurs in these latter months also, for our 
visits were not very frequent and the species is never common. A specimen 
was captured bearing a very large symmetrical injury, involving both fore and 
hindwings, and obviously inflicted while the butterfly was at rest ; about a 
third of the total wing-area is missing. The injury was presumably the work 
of a lizard. 

^99 s - — A female was observed on ovipositing on the underside 
of a leaf of Cuclrania sp. near javanensis Tree, a rather common epiphyte 
belonging to the Urticaceae, and known locally as " Samoan strawberry." 
The eggs were green, with fourteen longitudinal ridges, and the batch consisted 
of five ; as the plant is not large enough to support many larvae this is pro- 
bably about the normal number of eggs in a batch. Unfortunately it was not 
possible to measure these eggs, but I subsequently obtained oviducal eggs, 
of which the diameter was 0*96 mm. and the height 1*02 mm. The first larva 
hatched eight days later. 

The newly-hatched larva is grey with a black head. When full-grown 
(PI. IV, fig. 12) it is deep velvety black, with numerous minute white spots ; 
the legs and prolegs are black, the spiracles white. There is a pair of very 
large and stout black spines on the head, and a short pair on the prothorax ; 
the spines on all the other segments are stout and orange-coloured ; there 
are seven spines on each segment behind the prothorax except the penultimate 
and last segments, which bear only three and two respectively. The larvae 
were about 60 mm. long when full-fed. In captivity the larval stage lasted 
thirty-eight days, but may have been prolonged by the fact that the food- 
supply was very limited ; the two males bred were very small. 

Pupa. — Very like that of H. bolina but larger, with tubercles much less 
prominent ; dark brown with lighter brown mottling, especially on the dorsal 
surface. Two males each remained in the pupa eight days. 

This form will probably prove to be a race of H. pithoeka Kirsch., which 
occurs in several races in Papua and the Solomons. As, however, it differs 
markedly from any known race of H. pithoeka, and is so widely separated from 
it geographically, I prefer to keep it separate provisionally. The larva differs 
from that of //. pithoeka in the absence of the two broad ochre-yellow lateral 
lines mentioned by Fruhstorfer (1912, p. 544). 


9. Hypolimnas antilope lutescens (Butler). 
Diadema lutescens ; Butler, 1874, p. 283, PI. XLIV, fig. 3. 

Swezey, 1921, p. 603. 
Diadema antilope lutescens ; Schmeltz, 1875, p. 185. 
Hypolimnas antilope lutescens ; Rebel, 1910, p. 418. 

All the Samoan and Tongan specimens of this species that I have seen 
are referable to the forms lutescens Butler and sila Fruhst, the difference be- 
tween which in these islands appears to be sexual, all the lighter specimens 
being males and the darker ones (form sila) females. 

The species is not found in Western Samoa, but Swezey recorded it from 
Tutuila, and I found eggs, larvae, and imagines there at Pago-Pago and other 
localities on the south coast of the island, at sea-level, in August 1925 ; it pro- 
bably occurs all round the coast. In Tonga it was not uncommon near Neiafu, 
Vavau, in February and March 1925, especially at an elevation of about 200 feet 
on Talau Hill, but I did not see it elsewhere in the group. 

In striking contrast to its relatives H. bolina and H. errabunda, this is a 
very unwary insect ; its flight is lazy and floating, and it does not seem to 
frequent flowers ; it is fond of settling on a leaf at some distance from the 
ground, and is then easily captured. 

The eggs are laid in batches of several hundred on the underside of a leaf 
of Pipturus incanus Wedd. (Urticaceae), and are very small in proportion to 
the size of the butterfly (diameter - 77 mm., height 0*9 mm.). 

The larva is black, with spines arranged like those of H. errabunda, but pale 
brown in colour ; the pair on the head are much larger than the rest, and are 
black. The larvae feed in companies at least until the last moult, and remain 
on the food-plant by day. I did not find early stages in Tonga. Unfortunately 
I was not able to obtain the food-plant in Upolu, and in consequence all my 
larvae died. Subsequently I found the tree not uncommon there at an elevation 
of about 1,000 feet ; in Tutuila it occurs very commonly at sea-level, and also 
up to an elevation of at least 1,500 feet. 

In our area the butterfly appears to be confined to Tonga and American 
Samoa, but it has a wide range in the Pacific, occurring in Fiji, Papua, the 
Cook Islands, the New Hebrides, and elsewhere. Butler's types are from 
Ovalau, Fiji. 



10 (a). Hypolimnas bolina inconstans Fruhst. 

Hypolimnas bolina inconstans ; Fruhstorfer, 1912, p. 552. 
Hypolimnas bolina var. otalieitae ; Fraser, p. 147. 

Hudson, p. 105. 
Hypolimnas bolina ; Waterhouse, 1904, p. 493. 

Swezey, 1921, p. 603. 
Diadema montrouzieri ; Schmeltz, p. 185. 

Swezey, 1921, p. 602. 
Hypolimnas bolina montrouzieri ; Rebel, 1910, p. 418. 

Fruhstorfer records this form as inconstans Butler, and quotes part of 
Rebel's description of female specimens from near Apia ; Butler, however, used 
the name inconstans for an Australian form of Argynnis hyperbius (the type of 
which is in the British Museum), and not for any form of H. bolina, so that the 
present race becomes H. bolina inconstans Fruhst., with no type. 

Rebel's full description is as follows : " The Samoan race appears to con- 
stitute a well-differentiated local form, which is at once separated from the 
very variable Fijian form (octocula Butl.) by the smaller size and constant dark 
coloration. The white semi-fascia of the forewings and the white sub-apical 
spots, together with the wavy line of dots which joins them, always remain 
conspicuous. The longitudinal orange patch in cell lb varies somewhat in 
extent, but never reaches the base nor the middle of the wing, and only seldom 
extends back to the line of dots. In two specimens this orange mark on the 
inner border is much obscured. The hindwings show a bluish-white round 
blotch in the centre, which sometimes narrows band-like and appears pure white 
on the inner side. Forewings 29-34 mm." Fruhstorfer 's description of the 
form omits mention of the orange patch ; it appears to be the smallest known 
form of //. bolina. The female illustrated (PI. I, fig. 2) is from the type 
locality, Apia. 

The male (PI. I, fig. l) is undescribed ; it differs from that of other 
races chiefly in its smaller size ; the white discal spots on the upperside are 
small and much obscured by blue scaling, and the white discal band of the 
hind wing underside is much reduced, but the other underside markings are 
clear and well-defined. In a series of six males the maximum, mean, and 
minimum expanse are 68, 62, and 56 mm. Neallotype male from Apia, 
November 1924 ; paratypes from Mulifanua, April 1924, Apia neighbourhood, 


April and May 1925, and Lalomanu, Aleipata district, September and October 

1924. All these localities are in Upolu. 

Variation on the upperside is slight, for a race of H. bolina, and in the 
female extends at most to the loss of the orange patch on the forewing. Out 
of 122 females from Western Samoa, only 10 have no trace of this " nerina- 
red " ; this is certainly more than the true proportion, for the form was noted 
as being rare, and specimens of it were often collected when those possessing 
the orange patch were passed over. There is also a little variation in the other 
direction, the orange colour extending to cover the greater part of the disc of 
the forewing, but such specimens are not common. The white marks on the 
forewing are never obscured. There are sometimes traces of orange on the 
outer side of the white discal spot of the hindwings (in about a third of the 
females), and rarely this also becomes more extensive, but never produces 
a form at all like pallescens. On the underside there is a good deal of variation 
in the width of the white band on the hindwing, which may be well developed 
or much reduced. An entry in Mathew's diary (" Apia, Samoa, June 20, 
1884 . . . many bolina, the females varied a good deal ") may perhaps indicate 
that the race was formerly more variable than is now the case. 

The female is very common everywhere in the coastal belt of all the islands 
of Western Samoa, and occurs as a straggler in open spaces up to 2,000 feet, 
but the male is extremely rare, much less than one per cent, of the specimens 
observed ; only eighteen males were seen during the whole two years, while females 
were common in every month. Of the specimens captured (about 150), only 
six were males, and this is much above the true proportion, as a special watch 
was kept for them. The rarity of the male is so marked as to lead inevitably 
to a suspicion that parthenogenesis must occur in this race, but unfortunately 
I was never able to prove this by breeding ; a series of six females, neither very 
fresh nor very worn and all containing eggs, which were dissected in December 

1925, had no spermatozoa in the spermatheca, but much more of this negative 
evidence would be required before we could consider the existence of partheno- 
genesis in the form proved. Simmonds has been unable to obtain larvae from 
unfertilised eggs in Fiji, but I do not know of any other race of H. bolina in 
which the discrepancy between the sexes is so great as in inconstans. The com- 
bined observations of Armstrong and myself show that this discrepancy has 
been constant over a period of at least four years, while the fact that Rechinger, 
collecting in 1905, was not able to capture a single male suggests that it is of 



much longer standing. In this connection an observation made by Simmonds 
on H. bolina pallescens in the neighbourhood of Suva, on the island of Viti Levu, 
Fiji, is of very great interest. He had noted over a period of several years that 
females always outnumbered males in this district, though the discrepancy 
was not nearly so great as in Western Samoa ; in March 1926, however, on his 
return after an absence of about a year, he found that the proportions were 
reversed, and that males now outnumbered females, as is usual in the species. 
This was also my own experience during a few days spent in the Suva neigh- 
bourhood in December 1925, when I found males outnumbering females by 
at least three to one. 

The insect is a strong and rapid flier, and visits the flowers of Stachytarpheta 
and Lantana ; it has a habit of flying in under the overhanging branches of 
bushes, and settling there on a branch or the underside of a leaf, usually head 
downwards, but ready to fly off at the least alarm. The female carries the male 
during copulation. 

Specimens from Upolu and Savai'i do not differ in any way from each 
other ; this is well shown in the size, maximum, mean, and minimum expanse 
of ninety-five females from Upolu being 80, 70, and 52 mm., and of ten females 
from Savai'i, 78, 70, and 62 mm. Specimens from Tutuila, on the other hand, 
are extremely different, and are provisionally referred to the form pallescens 
Butler (q.v.). 

The eggs are always green, instead of being sometimes green and sometimes 
yellow as in the Fijian race of //. bolina ; they have eleven very prominent 
longitudinal ridges, and are laid in a batch of about six on the underside of a 
leaf of Sida rhombifolia (Malvaceae). The diameter is 0*79 mm., and the height 
0"86 mm. Eggs hatch three days after being laid. 

Walker (Poulton, p. 649) describes the larva of the Marquesan race as 
follows : " General aspect that of a Vanessa or Argynnis larva. Length from 
If to more than 2 inches ; cylindrical, rather stout, a little attenuated in front. 
Head a little larger than 2nd segment, deeply bifid at top, and bearing, on 
each lobe, a long blackish spine pointing upwards and a little forwards ; colour 
light reddish-brown or burnt-sienna. Body deep brownish-black, with a rather 
well-defined, irregular, sub-spiracular, longitudinal stripe on each side, light 
burnt-sienna colour ; legs and prolegs the same tint. Segments 3-12 bear 
eight ochreous-orange, slightly branched spines about \ inch long, rigid and 
somewhat irritating when handled ; segment 2 has only two short spines on 


either side. Spiracles black, surrounded with ochreous-yellow." Larvae 
from Upolu differ as follows: Smaller (about 37 mm. = 1| inches when full 
grown) ; head light reddish-brown, with a large oval black mark at the base 
of each of the two long spines ; body black, with a thin dusting of very minute 
yellow spots ; sub-spiracular line light brown, very indistinct and almost 
obsolete ; legs, prolegs, and spines on body-segments light cinnamon-brown, 
with no trace of orange. The larvae are unaccountably hard to find, and 
apparently do not frequent the food-plant by day. Collenette states (1926, 
p. 26) that at Eapa, in the Austral Islands, the larvae of H. bolina were very 
conspicuous by day on Sida ; it would appear that the habits of the larva, and 
to some extent those of the imago also, differ considerably in different localities. 

Walker's description of the pupa is as follows : " Not very unlike that of 
Vanessa io, but larger and stouter ; palpi-cases rather distinct, front of thorax 
very convex, with a strong, toothed, lateral crest. Abdomen very stout and 
rather abruptly truncated, bearing 5 longitudinal rows of sharp-pointed tubercles, 
the outer ones only distinct on the anterior segments. Anal appendages rather 
short and stout. Colour dark, dull, umber-brown, irregularly blotched with a 
lighter and more ochreous tint, especially on the wing-cases." Pupae from. 
Upolu agree perfectly with the above description. The pupal period is about 
ten days. Eggs or larvae were obtained in June, July, arid August. 

There are in the British Museum five males and two females of H. bolina 
labelled Swain's Island (J. J. Lister) ; of these females one is typical inconstans, 
but the other a rather remarkable form with the yellow markings very pale, 
and so extensive as to cover the greater part of both wings on the upperside. 
All the specimens agree with inconstans in size (males 62-73 mm., mean 67 mm., 
females 70 and 74 mm.), and are best referred to that race until we know whether 
the peculiar female is a normal form, or merely an uncommon aberration. 

10 (b). Hypohmnas bolina pallescens (Butl.). 

The forms of H. bolina found in the Tongan group and in American Samoa, 
unlike those from Western Samoa and from the Ellices, do not seem separable 
at present either from each other or from the Fijian race (of which pallescens 
appears to be the earliest name), except possibly by the varying proportions 
of the different forms of the female (the forms with orange or yellow ground- 
colour, for instance, seem to be entirely absent in Tutuila). I prefer, there- 
fore, to treat them all as belonging to the Fijian race, while keeping separate 



the records of the forms found in each group, and the synonyms that have been 

(i) Forms occurring in Tonga 

Hypolimnas thomsoni Butler, 1883, p. 414 (male only, the female is from 

Kandavu, Fiji). 
Fruhstorfer, 1912, p. 553. 
Hypolimnas naresi Butler, I.e. 
Hypolimnas moselyi Butler, I.e. 

Hypolimnas bolina morseleyi ; Fruhstorfer, 1912, p. 553. 

These three " species " of Butler are very similar ; all are of the male- 
like form, and they are not worth separating in such a variable species as H. 
holina ; the female f. murrayi Butler, described from a specimen from Kandavu, 
Fiji, is similar, but differs in the fact that the postdiscal white band on the 
forewing is obscured by dark suffusion and blue iridescence. Unfortunately 
the long series of H. bolina females which I collected in Tonga were almost 
all accidentally destroyed on the way home. Of the few survivors and those 
in the British Museum, nine females are of the thomsoni form, and fifteen of the 
pale form, pallescens, or modifications of it. These, however, do not truly 
represent the forms occurring in Tonga, nor the proportions in which they were 
to be found at the time of my visit. Fortunately I kept notes of. the proportions 
between the sexes, and between the different female forms observed. Both 
f. murrayi and a nerina-ioim. (i.e. a form not unlike H. b. inconstans but much 
larger) were captured, but both were rare ; except where the specimens were 
captured, I did not distinguish between f. thomsoni and f. murrayi, both being 
recorded as male-like, while all forms with a light ground-colour (i.e. f. 
pallescens and modifications) were called pale. 

In Vavau some dozens of males were seen, but only two females ; these 
were both of the nerina-ioim, but both pale forms and f. thomsoni from this 
locality are in the British Museum. Only males were observed in Haapai, 
and I have seen no females from that locality in collections. In Togatabu both 
sexes were common ; of sixty-eight females, either captured or seen sufficiently 
close for their character to be noted beyond doubt, forty-four were male-like, 
of which only two or three were f . murrayi, twenty-three were pale, and only 
one was of the nerina-ioim. About two hundred males were seen, so that the 
proportion of males to females at the time of my visit would be about 3:1. 


Probably this is less than the true disproportion between the sexes at that 
time, for a special watch was kept for females, and I hunted by preference in 
the shady places where these were to be found, rather than in the more open 
and sunny localities were the males were more common. Armstrong, in March 
1925, saw males only, and of four specimens collected by Mrs. Cockerell at 
Nukualofa, in July, three are males, the only. female being f. thomsoni. 

The maximum, mean and minimum expanse of twenty-four females from 
various Tongan localities are 96, 83, and 72 mm. 

An interesting point in the habits of this species in Tonga (true also in 
Tutuila) is that the female, unlike that of H. bolina inconstans, is of rather shy 
and retiring habits. Specimens of this sex were never to be seen sitting high up 
on a bush like the males, but always close to the ground and often quite in the 
interior of the bush ; on several occasions one was seen to fly into the interior 
of a patch of bushes, and emerge several yards away from its point of entry, 
but males were never observed to do this. 

I failed to see much evidence of protective resemblance m Tonga ; the 
male-like form can sometimes be mistaken in flight for E. eleuiho, but the 
resemblance is greatest in old, worn specimens, whose value to the species is 
presumably little or none ; moreover, the difference is usually readily seen on 
account of the different manner of flight, and it is only very occasionally that 
it is possible to mistake the two. At least one female was captured bearing an 
obvious beak-mark on one wing ; this was of the right size and shape to have 
been made by the large king-hunter (Halcyon sacra), which is common 
in Tonga, and I do not know of any other Tongan insectivorous bird with a 
beak large enough to have made the mark. 

A pale female was watched ovipositing on Sida ; the eggs were green. 

(ii) Forms occurring in American Samoa 

Of fifteen female specimens from Tutuila, which I have been able to examine 
(not including those in the Kellers collection, which are dealt with separately), 
eleven (one Dec. 1924, five Aug. 1925, and two Dec. 1925, Buxton and Hopkins ; 
one Nov. or Dec. 1892, Bourke, and two April 1903, M. J. Nicholl) are of the 
thomsoni form, the remaining four (all Aug. 1925) are of the form with dark- 
suffused postdiscal band (murrayi). The maximum, mean, and minimum 
expanse of these females are 89, 81, and 75 mm. A single female from Tau 
Island, Feb. 1926 (A. F. Judd), is of the thomsoni form, and is 83 mm. in expanse. 



The eight females in the Kellers collection, all labelled Tutuila, April 1918 
(which are accompanied by fourteen males), and one labelled Pago-Pago. 
Tutuila, Sept. 1923 (Swezey and Wilder), form, a remarkable contrast with all 
the above. All have more or less " nerina-ied " (absent in every other specimen 
from American Samoa which I have seen), and the last-mentioned is typical 
H. bolina inconstans both in markings and size. Of the eight females collected 
by Kellers, three have a distinct pale apical area on the fore wing, as in some 
specimens from the Cook Islands, but differ from these latter in their much 
smaller size. There is much variation in the extent of the orange area on the 
forewing and also in the white discal patch on the hindwing ; in three of the 
specimens this white patch is quite absent, and in two of these even the metallic 
blue suffusion, which usually surrounds it, has almost entirely disappeared ; but 
the postdiscal white band on the forewing is clearly-defined and unsuffused in all 
of them. They vary in size from 96 to 74 mm., with a mean of 81 mm., whereas 
other specimens from Tutuila are much more uniform in size, only varying from 89 
to 75 mm., with the same mean ; in many respects they strongly resemble speci- 
mens from Wallis and Fotuna Islands. I am unable to account for the extreme 
difference between these specimens and all others from American Samoa that I 
have seen ; the existence of the two females of the thomsoni form captured by 
Nicoll in April 1903, seems to preclude the possibility that the difference is seasonal. 

The species is common at low elevations in Tutuila, but, as in Tonga, males 
greatly outnumber females ; a captured series consists of forty-five males 
and twelve females, in spite of a special effort having been made to 
secure specimens of the latter sex. 

Samoan records of H. bolina have usually been under the name montrouzieri 
Butler, but this is certainly a mistake ; the type male of this form was obtained 
in the New Hebrides, but the female (in the British Museum) is labelled 
" Navigators' Is." (=Samoa). It is a very large specimen, 96 mm. in expanse, 
while females from Tutuila only average 81 mm., and is of a form that I have 
not seen from any part of Samoa. It agrees very well both in size and markings 
with females from the Cook Islands, and almost certainly came from that group. 
The unreliability of old labels is well shown by the fact that there is, in the 
same series, another female of the form (which is entirely confined in all its 
modifications to Australia and the islands of the Pacific) labelled " Nepaul " 
(with, of course, a note that the locality is erroneous). 


The difference in the proportions of the sexes of H. bolina in Western 
and in American Samoa is extremely interesting ; in almost all the Pacific Islands 
males are much commoner than females. Tonga and Tutuila conform to this 
general rule, while Simmonds has shown that in certain parts of Fiji the 
females preponderate. In no part of its range, however, does the disproportion 
between the sexes seem to be so great as in Western Samoa, where the males 
are much less than 1 per cent, of the total ; this is the more remarkable, in 
that there do not appear to be any differences in conditions between the two 
parts of Samoa to account for this disparity in sex-proportions. At the nearest 
point Upolu and Tutuila are only about 40 miles apart, and the climates seem 
to be as nearly as possible identical. Although I did not find the early stages 
in Tutuila, Sida (which it is safe to assume is, as in Fiji, Tonga and Western 
Samoa, the food-plant) is common. Nor does the lack of males in Western 
Samoa appear to be in any way disadvantageous to the species, for here, as 
in the other islands, H. bolina is one of the commonest insects. Another 
apparently inexplicable point is the cause of the difference in size of H. bolina 
in the two parts of Samoa ; the average expanse of females in Tutuila is 81 mm., 
and of the same sex in Upolu or Savai'i only 7 mm. The small size of H. bolina 
in Western Samoa finds a parallel in the case of several other species of butterflies, 
including D. melissa melittula and P. villida samoensis, and it has been suggested 
by Poulton that this general feature of small size in Western Samoan butterflies 
may be correlated with the occurrence of hurricanes. In Tonga, however, 
where the butterflies are not noticeably small, hurricanes are far more frequent 
than in Samoa, and most of the islands, being low, are much more exposed to 
the force of the wind than are the mountainous islands of Samoa. Moreover, 
as pointed out above, the small size of the butterflies of Upolu and Savai'i is 
not shared by the same species in Tutuila, where conditions as regards 
hurricanes are identical. This latter point has been entirely obscured by the 
fact that hardly any of the older Samoan records give exact localities, so that 
specimens from all the islands in the group are mixed in collections. 

in. 1 




10 (c). Hypolimnas bolina rarik (Esch.). 
Apatura rarik Escholtz, 1821, Kotzeb. Reise, p. 203, t. 5, f. 10. 
Hypolimnas rarik ; Woodford, 1895, p. 348. 
Diadema otaheitae ; Butler, 1878, p. 297. 
Hypolimnas bolina elliceana Fruhstorfer, 1912, p. 553. 

The type locality of this race is the Gilbert Islands, but it appears to be the 
dominant form in the Ellice group also. 

Fruhstorfer's description of H. bolina elliceana is as follows : "In the Ellice 
Is., to the N.W. of Samoa, we encounter a very small melanotic form ; elliceana 
subsp. nov., represented in the British Museum." Of the two females from 
the Ellice Islands in the British Museum, one is quite typical H. bolina rarik, 
the other, labelled as Fruhstorfer's type, is of the nerina form, and is 88 mm. 
in expanse. A form resembling it is figured by Poulton, PI. LIII, fig. 3 ; it is 
probably the specimen recorded by Butler (1878, p. 297) as D. nerina. These 
females are accompanied by three males. Of the specimens collected by 
Buxton, four are males, and five females ; four of the latter are typical H . bolina 
rarik ; the fifth (the only female from Nui) has the white postdiscal band on the 
upperside of the forewing much obscured by dark suffusion, the orange some- 
what restricted, and the white blotch on the hindwing strongly suffused with 
yellow. The maximum, mean, and minimum expanse of seven males from the 
Ellice group are 82, 73, and 66 mm., of six females (excluding the type of H. 
bolina elliceana) 86, 82, and 75 mm. 

Specimens of the species were observed in Nanumea, Nui, Nukulailai, 
Nukufetau and Niutao ; males and females were about equally common at 
the time of Buxton's visit. Mathew (Poulton, p. 647) records it from Funafuti, 
and it doubtless occurs throughout the group. The form rarik appears to be 
a fairly constant one, which does not occur in our area except in the Ellices, 
unless a male 94 mm. in expanse, taken by J. J. Lister in Fakaofu, Tokelau 
group, and now in the British Museum, belongs thereto ; this seems to be the 
only record of H. bolina from the Tokelaus. 

The adults are fond of sitting head downwards on a tree-trunk like a 
Vanessa, and the larva eats Pipturus propinquus Wedd., Sida (the usual food- 
plant elsewhere) being apparently absent from the Ellices. Woodford (1895, 
p. 349) states that in the Gilberts the larva feeds upon a species of Abutilon. 


11 (a). Precis villida villida (F.). 

Papilio villida Fabricius, Mant. Ins., 1787, p. 35, no. 366. 

Junonia villida ; Butler, 1878, p. 297, 1883, p. 415, 1895, p. 238. 
Swezey, 1921, p. 603. 

Junonia vellida ; Rainbow, p. 95. 

Woodford, 1895, p. 349. 
This form was described by Fabricius from specimens from " Amsterdam 
Island " (Togatabu), and the types are in the Banks Collection in the British 
Museum. It seems to be widespread in our area, and I am unable to separate 
specimens from the various groups except those from Western Samoa, which 
Rebel has described under the name P. villida samoensis. There is considerable 
variation in size, as is shown by the figures in Table II. The numbers examined 
from each locality are as follows : Tonga, six males, four females ; Tutuila, 
eleven males, seven females ; Ellice group, three males, three females ; Olosega 
(Swain's Island) three males, two females ; Western Samoa (ssp. samoensis), 
forty-three males, seventeen females. It should be noted that the figures given 
for the Ellices and for Olosega are not means ; from the former locality the 
measurements given are those of all specimens available, from the latter island 
three males measured 46 mm. and the fourth 45 mm., two females measured 
54 and 45 mm. There is considerable variation in other respects besides size, 
but it does not appear to be constant in any one locality. Both this and the 
next race can readily be separated from specimens of the Australian race (calybe 
Godt.) by the underside of the hindwing, which in the island specimens is of 
a much yellower shade of grey and always bears well-developed eye-spots. 

In Samoa, the form is common in Tutuila, and I have one specimen from 
Tau Island. In the Ellices, Buxton obtained specimens in Nui, Nanumea, and 
Nukufetau, and Rainbow records it as occurring in Funafuti. Woodford states 
that in this group the larva eats Scaevola hoenigii Vahl. (Goodeniaceae), and 
Buxton found the larvae feeding singly on the same plant ; in Olosega (Swain's 
Island) a single specimen of this species was the only butterfly he saw, but 
there are other specimens from this island in the British Museum (J. J. Lister). 
Buxton also saw it on Atafu, Tokelau Islands. I did not meet with the species 
in Tonga, but there are specimens in the British Museum from both Vavau and 
Togatabu ; no doubt, like P. villida samoensis in Western Samoa, it has strictly 
defined seasons, but the only dated specimens from Tonga are those taken 
by the Eclipse Expedition in Vavau, in April or May. 



In several geographical races this species is one of the most widespread 
butterflies in the South and Central Pacific ; its range extends from Australia 
in the west to Tahiti in the east, and it is found on many atolls that support 
no other butterfly-life except the still more widely- distributed H. bolina and 
perhaps Euploea eleutJio. 


Size in millimetres of specimens of Precis villida from various localities 



















Tutuila ... 

5 5 







Ellice group 








J ? 






Western Samoa . 








11 (b). Precis villida samoenis Rebel. 
Junonia velleda ; Semper, 1866, p. 251. 

Schmeltz, p. 183. 

Fruhstorfer, 1902, p. 353. 
Junonia villida ; Butler, 1874, p. 281. 

Waterhouse, 1904, p. 493. 

Pagenstecher, jd. 302. 
Junonia vellida ; Fraser, p. 149. 

Junonia villida samoensis Rebel, 1910, p. 418, PI. XVIII, fig. 9. 
Precis villida samoensis ; Fruhstorfer, 1912, p. 522. 

Rebel's description of this race is as follows : " Distinguished from the 
Australian parent form by its smaller size (male 19-22, female 24-27 mm., 
length of fore wing), but above all by the bright orange setting of the beautiful 
blue-centred eye-spots, which is completely confluent and appears as a broad 
border on all the wings. Also the ground-colour is a little darker, and extends 
down on the hindwings in cell 3 as a blunt tooth. On the underside all the 
wings are pale yellowish-grey, with very broad rich orange colouring in the 


border of all the wings, and in the whole region of the inner margin of the fore- 
wings." The form differs from P. villida villida chiefly in its smaller size 
(Table II), the mean expanse of males being 5 mm., and that of females 8 mm., 
less in specimens of this race from Upolu than in those of the type form from 
Tutnila. Specimens from Savai'i do not differ in any way from those from 
Upolu, but, as I have only a few examples from the former island, I do not 
quote the numbers ; the means quoted for specimens from Upolu and from 
Tutuila are based on forty -three males and seventeen females from the former 
island, and eleven males and seven females from the latter. In addition to 
the difference in size, however, a form occurs in this race, more particularly in 
the female, which is not mentioned by Rebel and has not been seen by me from 
any locality outside Western Samoa ; in this form the ground-colour is strongly 
suffused with orange-tawny scales of the same colour as the broad sub-terminal 
band, so that in extreme specimens of the form the contrast between band and 
ground-colour is almost entirely lost, and the two merge into one another. 
Nearly all females from Western Samoa show some tendency towards this 
form, but in the males it is less common and less well-developed. The orange 
sub-terminal band of the hindwing, usually broken in P. villida villida, is generally 
complete in the race samoensis. 

This insect provides the best example of seasonal prevalence that I was 
able to observe in a Samoan butterfly ; it was very uncommon in the Apia 
district in 1924, except from September to December, when it was rather 
common ; it was abundant in the Aleipata district and in several localities 
in Savai'i at the same time. It remained common in the Apia district until 
towards the end of January, after which only odd specimens were seen there 
until August, when it became common (sometimes abundant) in many localities 
in this and other districts, and remained so until our departure in December. 
It was never seen much above 1,000 feet, and only at that height where there 
were large cleared spaces. It is attracted to the flowers of Lantana, Stachy- 
tarpheta, Mimosa pudica, etc., but much more commonly is seen basking in the 
sun on a road or other open space, frequently flying up to chase a passing rival. 
On the two or three occasions when pairs were seen flying in copula, the female 
carried the male. 

I was not able to obtain any of the earlier stages. Oviducal eggs, 
however, were green and marked with twelve prominent longitudinal ridges ; 
their height was about - 70 mm., and the diameter about 0*68 mm. Scaevola, 



the food-plant of the species in the Ellices, occurs commonly in Samoa, but, 
since Fruhstorfer states (1912, p. 521) that the larva (presumably of the 
Australian race) eats Plantago, Antirrhinum and Daphne, it is probable that 
other races also are more or less polyphagous. 

12. Issoria sinha bowdenia (Butler). 
Atella bowdenia Butler (M. K.), 1873, p. 687. 

Schmeltz, p. 186. 

Waterhouse, 1904, p. 493. 

Rebel, 1910, p. 419, PI. XVIII, figs. 7 and 8. 

Swezey, 1921, p. 603. 
Atella bodenia ; Butler (A. G.), 1874, p. 283. 

Fraser, p. 149. 
Atella korodenia ; Pagenstecher, p. 302. 
Atella egista ; Herrich-Schaeffer, 1869, p. 71. 
Issoria sinha boivdenia ; Fruhstorfer, 1912, p. 475. 
Issoria sinha samoana Fruhstorfer, 1912, p. 475. 

Fruhstorfer described his I. sinha samoana from a single male from Samoa ; 
judging from his description it was merely a variety of /. boivdenia, the type 
locality of which is Tonga, and it seems very unfortunate that he should have 
described it on such inadequate material. I have examined a long series of 
this species both in the material brought home by me and in that in the British 
Museum, and can find no constant difference between specimens from Samoa 
and from Tonga. The only distinction which appears to be of any value is 
that of size ; the maximum, mean, and minimum expanse of the forewings 
are as follows : Tonga (nine specimens) 66, 63, and 60 mm., Western Samoa 
(thirty-five specimens) 64, 58, and 46 mm., Tutuila (thirteen specimens) 68, 64, 
and 56 mm. ; two males from Tau, American Samoa, measure 56 and 60 mm. 
respectively. The difference does not appear sufficiently great to be significant. 
In Fiji the species is represented by I. sinha vitiensis Waterh. 

This species was common in every month throughout the coastal region 
in Western Samoa, and in Tutuila whenever visited, but was never very 
abundant ; it also occurs, as noted above, in Tau. Though seen in February 
and March 1925, at both Nukualofa and Neiafu in Tonga, it was not common 
at either locality. It frequents the flowers of Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae) 
and sometimes those of Lantana, but does not seem to care much for any other 


blooms ; both sexes are more frequently seen flying round the food-plant than 
in any other circumstances. It is commonest at the edge of forest, and is 
never found (in Samoa) much above 1,000 feet, though the food-plant, a small 
tree, Xylosma suaveolens Forst., (Flacourttaceae) occurs up to at least 2,000 feet. 
My notes on the early stages were made from Samoan material. 

The egg is yellow and almost spherical, 0*67 mm. in height and 0'77 mm. 
in diameter, the surface marked with about twelve longitudinal and thirteen 
transverse ribs. The eggs are laid singly on the underside of a leaf, and the 
egg-laying habits of the female are very curious. The insect settles on the 
upperside of the leaf, and bends her abdomen underneath to attach the egg ; 
when possible she chooses a leaf with a hole in it, in which case she inserts the 
tip of her abdomen through the hole. She is not at all particular about laying 
on the food-plant, for eggs are frequently to be found on any other plant that 
happens to be near by. The egg-stage lasts two days. 

The larva (PI. IV, fig. 6) is coloured as follows : Head pale red-brown ; 
body above spiracular line light brown, with an interrupted paler dorsal line ; 
spiracular line white ; prolegs, and body below spiracular line greenish. There 
is a pair of long, branched, blackish, spines on the prothorax, and three pairs 
of shorter pale brown spines on each of the other body-segments. Length 
about 26 mm. when full-grown. The larva feeds either exposed on the upper- 
side of a leaf, or hidden on the underside, and when disturbed drops by a thread 
to the ground. 

The pupa (PL IV, fig. 7) is attached to a vein on the underside of a leaf 
of the food-plant. There is a pair of short dorsolateral spines on the head, 
another short pair on the thorax, and a pair of long dorsal spines on segments 
2, 4, and 6 of the abdomen. The colour is pale green ; there is a short streak 
of metallic silver on the dorsum of the wing-cases, and the two spines of each 
pair on the abdomen are joined dorsally by a patch of silver. The imago hatches 
after seven days. Larvae were found in June, August, November and December. 

13. Atella exulans, sp. n. 
Male (PI. II, fig. 13). Upperside bright tawny-yellow with slight purple 
iridescence, black markings as follows : Forewing, four sinuous lines in the 
cell and a bar along the discocellular veins, beyond this a somewhat triangular 
oblique bar extending from the costa to vein 4, where it almost touches a small 
triangular spot in interspace 3 ; a transverse series of small postdiscal spots, 



followed by a lunular line and narrow terminal and sub-terminal borders, fused 
anteriorly; a small angular line basally in interspace 1. Hind wing, a trans- 
verse series of small postdiscal spots, absent in interspaces 1 and 6, and 
obsolescent in interspace 4, followed by a lunular line and narrow terminal and 
sub-terminal lines. Underside much paler, apex of forewing pale purplish- 
brown ; markings more or less as on upperside, but very faint except the post- 
discal spot in interspace 1 of the forewing, which is large and black, and the 
postdiscal spots in interspaces 2 to 6 of the hindwing ; the latter are ringed 
with deeper tawny and placed on a pearly-white band, beyond which is a line 
of pearly lunules. 

Female (PI. II, fig. 14). Similar to male, ground-colour paler and all 
black markings more extensive. The purple iridescence is absent. 

Maximum, mean, and minimum expanse of twenty- two males 50, 47, and 
42 mm., of six females 53, 51, and 48 mm. 

Type male from Malololelei, Upolu Island, 2,000 feet, ll.x.25, female from 
same locality, 10.vii.24 ; paratypes from same locality, various dates, and one 
female from Mata Vanu, Savai'i, 1,500 feet. 

Variation is very slight and specimens from Savai'i do not differ from those 
from Upolu. A short series of bred specimens are very small, and are not taken 
into consideration in the above figures of the expanse. 

This very distinct form will possibly prove to be a race of A. alcip])e 
(described from a specimen from Amboina), but is widely separated from it 
geographically. The only Atella hitherto known to occur in Polynesia is A. 
gaberti (not very closely related to the present form), of Tahiti, so that this 
record is a notable extension of the known range of the genus. A species is 
also known to exist in Papua. 

Unlike Issoria bowdenia, this species is strictly confined to the upper parts 
of the islands ; it does not occur below about 1,000 feet, and is commonest 
at about 2,000 feet, so that the two species have quite separate ranges, which, 
however, overlap slightly at an elevation of about 1,000 feet. Common at 
Malololelei throughout the year, and at an elevation of about 2,000 feet in 
Savai'i (E. J. Bryan) ; I also took it in Savai'i at 1,500 feet, on Mata Vanu. 
There are no records from Tutuila or from any localities outside Samoa. 

In habits it much resembles I. bowdenia, being generally found round the 
food-plant, a small tree, Melicytus s^., probably M. ramiflorus Forst. (Violaceae) ; 
it also frequents the flowers of Lantana and of Micania scandens (Compositae). 


The egg, which is cream-coloured and nearly hemispherical, is laid singly 
on the underside of a leaf of Melicytus. The sculpturing is shallow, consisting 
of about forty longitudinal ridges, occasionally coalescing and connected by 
very inconspicuous transverse ridges. Micropylar area flat, sculptured like the 
rest of the egg. Height 0'47 mm., diameter 0*56 mm. 

Larva (PL IV, fig. 8). Head mainly black, anteriorly pale green ; body 
pale yellowish-green, with a broad blackish middorsal line and an interrupted 
white spiracular one ; legs and prolegs pale yellowish-green ; spines as in 
/. boivdenia but much shorter, pale grey. Length when full-grown about 
20 mm. Like that of /. bowdenia, the larva drops by a thread when disturbed, 
but even more readily. It is sometimes attacked and sucked by a Pentatomid 
bug (Platynopus melacanthus Boisd.). 

Pupa (PL IV, fig. 9) dimorphic, one form pale green with the following 
markings on the dorsal surface : a double small dark-brown spot on the head, 
and another on the thorax ; a short streak of the same colour on the inner 
margin of the wing-case, and a rather large blotch of it on segments 2, 4, and 6 
of the abdomen ; on the head and each segment of the thorax and abdomen, 
except the last, there is a minute metallic gold spine. The second form is 
similar, but paler green, the dorsal surface much marked and suffused with 
purplish-brown, the metallic markings more extensive and more coppery in 
tint, and the dark brown areas paler and less well-defined. The two forms 
are quite distinct, and intermediates do not seem to occur. The pupa is attached 
to a pad of silk on the underside of a leaf of the food-plant ; the cremaster 
is relatively exceptionally large, and extends ventrally for a considerable 
distance ; accordingly the pupa does not hang down vertically like most 
Nymphalid pupae, but lies with its whole ventral surface almost touching the 
leaf. The pupal stage lasts six days. Larvae and eggs were found in March 
and July. 

14. Papilio godeffroyi Semper. 
Papilio godeffroyi Semper, 1866, p. 469, PL XXIV. 

Herrich-Schaeffer, p. 78. 
Butler, 1874, p. 289. 
Schmeltz, p. 191. 

Mathew, 1885, p. 361, PL X (larva and pupa). 
Fraser, p. 148. 



Papillo godeffroyi ; Eebel, 1910, p. 419. 

Swezey, 1921, p. 605. 
Papilio godefroyi ; Woodford, 1890, p. 89. 

Pagenstecher, p. 302. 

Semper's types came from Upolu ; in a short series from Upolu, Savai'i 
and Tutuila there is almost no variation, and the specimens from the different 
islands are inseparable. 

The species is never very common, but is found throughout the year in 
many localities, from sea-level to at least 2,000 feet, in all parts of Western 
Samoa and in Tutuila. Woodford states that he once took a specimen on one 
of the eastern islands of Fiji ; this is probably the specimen recorded by 
Herrich-Schaeffer (p. 79) from Ovalau, Fiji. The record has been discredited 
by later writers, but, as Woodford was quite familiar both with this species 
and with the Fijian P. schmeltzi, I see no reason to doubt his statement ; it 
seems, however, to be the only record of the species from any locality outside 
Samoa. It is least uncommon on the outskirts of thick forest, where it frequents 
the flowers of Lantana and of Carica papaya (paw-paw or mummy-apple). A 
very large proportion of the specimens seen are damaged, apparently by con- 
tact with twigs in flight. This, when the insect is not alarmed, is rather 
slow but powerful, and the butterfly frequently keeps high up round the upper- 
parts of large trees ; the females are more easily captured than the males, since 
they often fly only a few feet above the ground, apparently seeking a suitable 
place for oviposition. They appear to be somewhat scarcer than the opposite 
sex, my series including eleven of the latter and only six females. Schmeltz 
(p. 191) states that Graeffe found specimens from the mountains in Upolu larger 
than those from the coast ; I am not able to confirm this. 

A single egg was laid in my hand by a captured female ; this was almost 
spherical, uniform pale brown above and dull yellowish beneath, the two colours 
sharply separated ; there was no sculpturing, but the surface was slightly 
rough. Diameter 0*75 mm., height 0*68 mm. The larva subsequently hatched, 
but died. 

According to Mathew, the larvae " Fed perfectly exposed upon young- 
stunted plants of Aralia* growing in shady and sheltered places." " The full- 

* Rechinger (Bot. und Zool. Ergebnisse einer wiss. Forschungsreise nach den Samoainseln, 
etc. DenJcschr. K. Akad. Wissenschaft, Vienna, vol. 85, p. 323) does not record any species of 
this genus from Samoa. He records several genera of the Araliaceae. 


grown larva is from 50 mm. to 55 mm. long, rather plump, tapering slightly 
towards the anal extremity, and with the 4th, 5th, and 6th, segments con- 
siderably thickened ; whole colour a beautiful golden green ; oblique darker 
green stripes pointing backwards ; a darker narrow dorsal line widening out to 
a diamond-shaped longitudinal spot at the segmental divisions ; a double stripe 
between this and the oblique stripes ; from the 2nd segment, in a line with the 
mouth, a somewhat triangular blotch of a deep velvety madder-brown runs 
obliquely upwards through 3rd and 4th to base of 5th segment, and connects 
over the back with a similar marking on the other side ; this stripe is continued 
through the 6th segment, where it meets the broad shining white stripe, which 
runs above claspers to vent ; the triangular blotch is bordered above by a 
pale golden-green line ; on 8th and 10th segments a somewhat triangular 
madder-purple blotch, bordered above by a narrow white stripe ; head shining 
brownish-green, with a narrow white line down centre of face, and a V-shaped 
mark over mouth ; legs pale reddish-brown ; ventral and anal claspers smoky 
black ; two bluntish orange-coloured spines upon the 2nd segment, just behind 
the head, and at the base of each of these a minute orange tubercle, between 
which, and a little to the rear of the spines, is the nuchal valve, through which, 
when the larva is irritated, the usual tentacles are emitted ; the tentacles are 
of a deep carmine, and give off the accustomed pungent odour ; on 3rd and 4th 
segments a pair of subdorsal blunt spines ; on 5th, and from 9th to 13th 
segments, a single subdorsal spine on each side ; all the spines orange, faintly 
tipped with black. These larvae varied a good deal ; in some the oblique 
stripes and triangular blotches were entirely absent, the whole surface, above 
the white spiracular stripe, being of a beautiful green, more or less marbled or 
streaked with darker and golden greens ; while one or two larvae I took had 
the markings upon one side only." 

The description of the pupa by the same author is as follows : " The 
chrysalis is from 30 mm. to 35 mm. long, angulated ; head very strongly bifid, 
the extreme points tipped with black ; back gradually arched ; sheath of 
haustellum prominent ; costal edge of wing-case ridged ; body pinched in at 
centre ; whole surface a beautiful golden apple-green ; spiracles well-marked, 
darker ; segmental divisions clearly defined, pale yellowish-brown. The 
chrysalis is invariably attached to the midrib of a leaf, while those of Papilio 
schmeltzi are just as invariably attached to a stem." He notes that pupae in 
captivity vary in colour with the colour of the background. 


15. Catophaga jacquinotn manaia, ssp. n. 
Catophaga athama ; Butler Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist.. 1898, p. 398. 
Rebel, 1910, p. 420. 
Female (PL II, fig. 11). Upperside pale creamy-yellow, darker on the 
hindwing. Forewing ; costa thickly sprinkled with black scales ; apical third 
of wing and a broad terminal band black, black area somewhat deeply excavated 
in interspace 2 and bearing a series of 3 large and 2 small and diffuse sub-apical 
spots of the ground-colour ; hindwing with a broad black subterminal border, 
between which and the termen is a series of small triangular areas of the 
ground-colour. Underside : forewing with a broad irregular black postdis- 
cal band dividing the wing into two areas, a very pale yellow basal area in 
which the cell is strongly suffused with chrome-yellow, and an apical area 
which appears to be black in reality, but is so strongly suffused with white 
scales as to seem pearly-white ; the subapical spots appear pure white on 
this pearly- white ground ; hindwing greenish- white, a narrow strip along 
the costa and a small area at the anal angle chrome-yellow ; a broad subter- 
minal band as on the upperside, but so strongly suffused with white as to appear 

Male (PI. II, fig. 9). Upperside white, costa, apex, and termen of fore- 
wing very narrowly edged with black ; underside white, black markings as on 
upperside, apex of forewing and whole of hindwing yellowish-buff, deepening 
to canary-yellow along the costa and at the anal angle of the hindwing. There 
is an opaque area in the disc of the upperside of the hindwing, which is apparently 
a patch of scent-scales. 

Types from Lalomanu, Aleipata district, Upolu Island, female 20.xi.24, 
male 23.X.24 ; a series of more than forty paratypes from the above locality 
and others, in Western Samoa. Maximum, mean, and minimum expanse of 
female (twenty-three specimens) 66, 61, and 54 mm., of male (twenty-three 
specimens) 69, 64, and 58 mm. I have made the female the holotype on account 
of the difficulty of separating males of the different forms in this subgenus. 
The name means " beautiful " in Samoan. 

The above race is apparently very closely allied to C. jacquinotii Lucas 
(=C. athama Lucas), but is distinguished in the female by the paler ground- 
colour, the deeper indentation of the black area of the forewing in interspace 2, 
and the presence of more than three subapical spots ; the above differences 
are taken from Lucas' figure (Blanchard, Voyage au Pole Sud, Zoologie IV, 


p. 381, PI. I, figs. 10 and 11) ; the form figured (C. athama) is, as pointed out by 
Dixey, the female of C. jacquinotii Lucas, which has page-priority ; Dixey also 
points out that Butler's description of a male from Samoa as that of C. athama 
was quite unjustified. Both the sexes of Lucas' species were taken in " Balaou, 
New Guinea," a locality which has been variously identified as the Pelew (Palau) 
Islands or as Vanua Ubalavu in the Exploring group (the Lau group of Fiji), 
though the latter are nowhere in the neighbourhood of New Guinea. I have 
not seen specimens from either the Pelew group or the Philippines, but examples 
from other groups in the Western Pacific (e.g. the New Hebrides and New 
Caledonia) differ markedly from Samoan and Tongan females in their much 
yellower ground-colour, and appear much more like Lucas's figure. A female 
from " Vanua Valava, Fiji," figured by Herrich-SchaefTer (Stett. ent. Zeit., 
1869, PI. I, fig. 2) is apparently of the present form ; but the only specimen 
from Fiji that I have seen is a male. 

Variation in the male of C. jacquinotii manaia is slight, and almost confined 
to the underside of the hindwing and apex of forewing, the colour of which is 
sometimes much paler than in the type. The female varies very considerably, 
and there are two main forms. In one of these (PI. II, fig. 10) the ground- 
colour on the upperside is somewhat darker than in the type, and becomes 
deep cream, the subapical spots are enlarged and there may be a small extra 
one posteriorly ; the black band on the hindwing is narrower than in the type ; 
on the underside the suffusion of white scales is so dense that the apex of the 
forewing and terminal area of hindwing appear almost pure white. In the 
other form (PI. II, fig. 12) the ground-colour is paler, approaching pure white 
in some specimens, the black areas are increased in size and the subapical spots 
of the forewing small, that in interspace 4 being sometimes hardly visible ; 
on the underside the markings are as on the upperside, the white suffusion of 
the dark areas on both forewing and hindwing being so poorly developed that 
these are sooty-black. In some specimens of this form the subterminal band 
of the hindwing is entirely without suffusion, but I have not seen any in which 
there is not a little suffusion of the apical area of the forewing. The two forms 
are not sharply divided and they do not appear to be seasonal, both forms 
occurring at the same time and place. Intermediates (like the type female) 
are much commoner than the extreme forms, and the form with dark markings 
on the underside as on the upperside appears to be rare. Tongan specimens 
do not seem to differ in any respect from Samoan ones ; six Tongan males have 



a maximum, mean, and minimum expanse of 69, 64, and 58 mm., and two 
females measure 62 and 66 mm. respectively. 

A very uncommon species in the Apia district, but a few specimens were 
seen in every month ; sometimes common in other Samoan localities : Rechinger 
found it abundant on Apolima in June (Rebel, I.e.), and it was very abundant 
there in March 1924, and also at Lalomanu from September to December, 
1924 ; it occurs commonly in several localities in Savai'i (Fagamalo, Tuasivi, 
etc.) and in Tutuila (Pago-Pago). In Tonga I saw a single male at Neiafu, 
Vavau, and Armstrong found it very common at the same locality in March 
1925, especially on the top of Talau Hill, where, however, all the specimens 
seemed to be males. He states that they showed a marked preference for a 
species of wild pepper very similar to the kava plant ; both sexes were driven 
out of this by beating, and it seems possible that it is the food-plant, but unfor- 
tunately he was not able to find eggs or larvae. Both sexes are very fond of 
the flowers of Morinda citrifolia, and occasionally visit those of Lantana, but 
I have never seen them at any other flowers. 

This species is a very swift and strong flyer, and extremely difficult to 
catch on the wing. In the Laomanu district is a long and narrow promontory 
(Text-fig. 1) running in an easterly direction, and along this both sexes delighted 
to fly out to sea in the teeth of the strong south-easterly wind ; few were seen 
to return, and some at least reached the outlying islets of Nuutele and Nuulua ; 
they were accompanied in their flight by smaller numbers of E. schmeltzi and 
D. m. melittula. 

An egg, which was laid in my hand by a captive female, was yellow and of 
the skittle-shape common among Pierines ; unfortunately it was lost before it 
could be measured. The other early stages are unknown. 

16. Belenois java schmeltzi, ssp. nov. 
Belenois teutonia; Schmeltz, p. 190. 

Pagenstecher, p. 301. 
Anapliaeis micronesia ; Cockerell, p. 168. 

The forms of Belenois occurring in Fiji, and other groups of islands in the 
Pacific, have long been considered races of B. teutonia Fab. of " New Holland " 
(Australia) ; this in turn, however, is conspecific with B. java Sparrm. (an older 
name), and is therefore placed as a race of the latter both in the British Museum 
collection and in Seitz. The species is very widespread in the Pacific, but does 


not seem to occur north of Samoa. The Tongan form appears to differ con- 
stantly from other races, and may be described thus : 

Male (PI. I, fig. 5). Upperside white. On forewing a rounded black 
spot at apex of cell, apical area and termen black, with a subterminal series 
of seven white spots, the first three of which are elongate and the four posterior 
rounded, the second spot (that at the apex) being very small and narrow. 
Hindwing ; a black terminal band, narrowing posteriorly and bearing a series 
of spots of the ground-colour, which appear yellowish by transparency ; the 
black along the veins of the underside also shows through. Underside as 
upperside, but all the black markings more extensive. Forewing with costa 
and discocellulars black. Hindwing, all the veins broadly edged with black, 
the areas of ground-colour along the costa and inner margin, and the subterminal 
series of spots all strongly tinged with chrome-yellow, a small area of the same 
colour in the cell. 

Female (PI. I, fig. 6). Similar to male, but all black markings more 
extensive, and sooty-black instead of jet-black as in the male. Upperside 
creamy white ; forewing costa edged with dusky black, and a broad curved 
streak of black along the discocellulars ; hindwing, veins narrowly (dis- 
cocellulars broadly) edged with dusky black. Underside as in male, but 
ground-colour yellowish- white, subterminal spots of forewing yellowish, and 
black markings more extensive. 

Maximum, mean, and minimum expanse of ten males 66, 62, and 58 mm., 
of six females 68, 63, and 59 mm. Types and six paratypes (five male and one 
female) from Neiafu, Vavau, Tonga, 7.iii.26 (J. S. Armstrong) ; I have also 
two very poor males, captured at the same locality on 12.ii.25 by myself, and 
have taken into consideration two males and two females from Vavau, collected 
by the Eclipse Expedition in April or May 1911, and two females from Tonga 
(exact locality not given), 1889 (J. J. Lister). I have named the race after 
Schmeltz, who was the first to record it and point out some of the distinctions 
between it and the Fijian race. 

This race is evidently very closely related to B.j. micronesia Fruhst., of Fiji, 
but almost all Fijian specimens (as pointed out by Schmeltz) have the sub- 
marginal spots on the underside of a greenish-yellow, totally different from the 
deep chrome-yellow of B. java schmeltzi ; a few Fijian specimens have the 
underside spots yellow instead of greenish, but never of the deep colour typical 
of Tongan specimens ; the area of the colour is also less than in Tongan 



specimens, filling only about half the area of each spot, the rest of which is 
white, while in Tongan specimens the yellow quite fills the spot. 

Variation is not very extensive in this form : one male in the series 
captured by Armstrong has the black subterminal band of the hindwing very 
well-defined on the upperside, but in all the rest the inner part of it is very 
indistinct, and merges into the white ground-colour ; the specimen referred 
to has the submarginal white spots of both wings on the upperside smaller 
than usual, and the apical spot on the forewing is missing. The chrome-yellow 
on the underside is more extensive in some specimens than in the type, and 
several of the females have the underside of the forewing strongly suffused with 
chrome-yellow, from the base to beyond the middle. 

Two specimens of B. java from Samoa, the male from " Apia or Pago- 
Pago," Nov. or Dec. 1892 (E. Bourlce), and the female from Lalomanu, Aleipata 
district, Upolu Island, 24.ix.24, taken by myself, differ markedly from the 
Tongan specimens and perhaps do not belong to the same- race ; further 
examples would be of very great interest. The male (PI. I, fig. 3) has the 
black markings much reduced, the subterminal band of the hindwing underside 
being represented by a narrow terminal edging, so that the yellow subterminal 
spots are not bordered on the inner side with black ; the black apical area of 
the forewing is also much reduced, so that the white subterminal spots become 
almost continuous with the ground-colour. The specimen is 56 mm. in expanse. 

The female (PI. I, fig. 4) has no black band along the discocellulars of 
the hindwing upperside, as in Tongan specimens, but all the other black markings 
are unusually extensive ; the upperside of the hindwing has all the veins out- 
lined in black, and much black suffusion, and on the underside the black is so 
extensive that the whole discai area of the wing becomes black, with an 
elongate yellowish- white spot, strongly suffused with black, in the cell, and a 
postdiscal series of similarly-coloured, somewhat triangular spots. Expanse 
60 mm. 

The difference between these two specimens is very remarkable, the male 
being much paler than Tongan specimens and the female much darker ; this 
difference can hardly be seasonal, as both were taken in the wet season. It 
may possibly be geographical, and it is most unfortunate that the male has not 
more exact data ; it is quite possible that it comes from Tutuila, and that there 
are separate races of the species in that island and in Western Samoa (as in 
several other cases), but we have no evidence on the point at present. 


The species is common in Tonga in the neighbourhood of Neiafu, where 
both Armstrong and I saw it in plenty ; Schmeltz records it from Liku 
in Togatabu. On my second visit to Vavau, a fortnight after the first, I did 
not see a single specimen, so that it appears to have sharply- defined seasons 
and to fly only for a very short period. It is apparently a very rare insect in 
Samoa, or possibly only very local. The only certain record I have is that 
of the female described above, but Brass thought he saw two or three others in 
the same district in November 1925 ; unfortunately he was not able to capture 
any of them. It is possible that the species is seasonally common in Tutuila, but 
we failed to find it on any of our visits, and it is not mentioned in Swezey's list. 

Schmeltz says of the larva : " Resembles, according to Dr. Graeffe, that 
of our Cabbage White ; is brown, with yellow tubercles on which stand a few 
hairs, and lives on Cucuebitaceae." He does not say with which race he was 
dealing, but it appears to have been the Tongan one. 

17. Terias hecabe aprica (Butler). 
Terias aprica Butler, 1883, p. 420. 
Terias hecabe ; Schmeltz, 1876, p. 188. 

Rebel, 1910, p. 421. 
Terias hecabe aprica ; Rebel, 1915, p. 123. 
Terias sulphur ata Butler ; Cockerell, p. 169. 

Rather common in the Nukualofa district, Tonga ; I did not take it else- 
where, but there are in the British Museum collection two specimens from the 
Vavau group, taken by the Eclipse expedition in April or May 1911. Schmeltz 
recorded the form as occurring in Samoa as well as in Tonga and Fiji, and his 
record is repeated (with a query) by Rebel ; the record has, however, never 
been confirmed, and it is very doubtful whether the specimen came from Samoa. 
Certainly no form of T. hecabe occurs in Upolu now, and we did not see it or 
obtain records of it from any other part of Samoa. 

Variation in this form appears confined to the black marginal border of the 
upperside of the hindwing, which is almost obsolete in some specimens (including 
the type), but quite well-developed in others. 

18 (a). Deudorix epijarbas doris, ssp. n. 
Closely allied to D. epijarbas diorella Waterh., of Fiji, from which it differs 

as follows : Male. — Upperside, fiery-red colour on forewings (almost confined 
in. 1 4 



to interspace 1 in D. epijarbas diorella) extending into interspace 2, the basal 
two-thirds of which it fills. Underside like that of D. epijarbas diorella, except 
that the orange lunule defining outwardly the subterminal black spot in inter- 
space 2 of the hindwing is absent. Maximum, mean, and minimum expanse 
43, 39, and 35 mm. (PI. I, fig. 7.) 

Female. — Differs on the upperside from that of D. epijarbas diorella in the 
absence of the orange lunule on the inner side of the anal lobe, and on 
the underside in the absence of that in interspace 2 of the hindwing. Other- 
wise the two races are indistinguishable in the female. Maximum, mean, and 
minimum expanse 44, 41, and 38 mm. (PI. I, fig. 9.) 

Male type and eight paratypes from Malololelei, and one paratype from 
Apia ; female allotype and five paratypes from Malololelei. All are from 
Upolu Island, Samoa. 

The male may immediately be separated from that of D. epijarbas diorella 
by the much greater extent of the red on the forewing ; from that of D. diovis 
Hew., of Queensland, which it greatly resembles, it may readily be distinguished 
by the much more fiery tinge of the red, the greater extent of this colour on the 
hindwing, and the absence on the latter of the narrow black subterminal 
border found in D. diovis. 

Variation is slight ; in two males (the type and another) the red colour 
extends a short distance into interspace 3 on the forewing, and it may also 
spread slightly into interspace la. On the underside the fasciae vary a little in 
width, and in some males the orange lunule in interspace 2 of the hindwing is 
present but very indistinct. 

This species was common at Malololelei (2,000 feet) at Lantana blossom, 
in February 1924, males being much commoner than females. Half a dozen 
were seen at the same locality in March, and odd specimens in April and May, 
while a single male was captured on the outskirts of Apia (almost at sea-level) 
in the latter month. In spite of numerous further visits to the original locality 
(not, however, in February or March) no more specimens were seen, and I have 
no records from any localities outside Upolu. Both sexes settle on leaves and 
twigs as well as on flowers, darting off now and then to chase a companion in 
typical " Hairstreak " fashion ; they also occasionally alight on the ground. 
The flight is very rapid and powerful. 


18 (b). Deudorix epijarbas armstrongi, ssp. n. 

This is the Tongan representative of D. epijarbas, and is closely allied to 
D. epijarbas doris, from which the female (PI. I, fig. 8) differs as follows : 
the pale area of the forewing (diffuse, small and sometimes almost absent in 
both D. epijarbas doris and diorella) is a clearly-defined triangular patch, filling 
the base of interspace 2 and nearly the whole of the basal two-thirds of inter- 
space 1, and extending also into interspace la. The form resembles D. epijarbas 
diorella in the possession of the orange lunules on the inner side of the anal lobe 
on the upperside, and in interspace 2 of the hindwing on the underside. The 
black spot in interspace 2 of the hindwing is slightly developed on the upperside 
in all three females of D. epijarbas armstrongi but not in any of the females of 
D. epijarbas doris or D. epijarbas diorella that I have seen. Type and two 
paratypes (48, 42, and 38 mm. in expanse) from Neiafu, Vavau, Tonga, 7.iii.26 
(J. S. Armstrong). Male and early stages unknown. 

Armstrong found this subspecies not uncommon on the shore at Neiafu 
on Morinda citrifolia, and states that it was not feeding on the flowers but 
settling on the leaves ; most were out of reach, and he was only able to capture the 
three females mentioned. I met with both sexes rather sparingly at Nukualofa on 
Lantana and at Neiafu, but all my specimens were destroyed on the journey home. 

19. Jamides argentina (Prittw.). 
Anophthalmia ? argentina Prittwitz, p. 274. 
Lycaena argentina ; Schmeltz, p. 186. 

Pagenstecher, p. 302. 
Lampides argentina ; Butler, 1874, p. 283. 

Swezey, 1921, p. 605. 
Jamides bochus argentina ; Fruhstorfer, 1923, p. 902. 
Jamides carissima ; Druce (part), p. 443. 

Rebel, 1910, p. 421, PI. XVIII, figs. 10, 11, and 12. 

Swezey, 1921, p. 605. 
Lycaena ivoodfordi ; Fraser, p. 148. 
Jamides woodfordi ; Swezey, 1921, p. 604. 

Although this form varies considerably, more particularly in the width of 
the terminal black band on the upperside of the forewing in the male, it can 
readily be distinguished from Jamides carissima (described by Butler from a 
specimen from Erromango Island, New Hebrides) by the greater width of this 



band ; I have not seen an example from the New Hebrides in which it is as 
broad as in the Samoan specimens. Moreover, the ground-colour in the male 
of the present form is of a much brighter and more metallic blue, and the speci- 
mens are on the average considerably smaller. Druce states that there are in 
the British Museum specimens of J. carissima from Samoa, but the only J amides 
from this locality in the collection are J. argentina ; his figure (PL XVII, fig. 17) 
appears to be true J. carissima; Butler (1875, p. 615) records J. argentina 
from the New Hebrides, but there are no specimens of the form in the British 
Museum except from Samoa. There is considerable variation in all the Pacific 
J amides, and this has led to many of the species being recorded from localities 
where they do not occur, but in the main the geographical forms are fairly 
well-defined and constant. Their synonymy is, however, in a most unfortunate 
state owing to misidentifications and incorrect localities, and much further 
material from all localities is required to clear up the confusion. Fruhstorfer 
is possibly correct in treating them all as races of the Indo-Malayan J. bochus 
Cr., but this cannot be satisfactorily proved until further material, with exact 
data, is available from all groups. 

The maximum, mean, and minimum expanse of thirty-three males from 
Western Samoa are 29, 25"5, and 22 mm., and of fifteen females 29, 26, and 
20 mm. ; the corresponding figures for five males and seven females from 
Tutuila are 28, 26, and 24 mm., and 30, 27, and 24 mm. A single much-worn 
female from Tau, which appears to be of this form, measures 28 mm. in expanse. 

Abundant in Samoa throughout the year, at many localities at sea-level 
in all the islands visited, and found wherever the food-plant, Vigna lutea A. Gr. 
(Leguminosae), a common yellow-flowered creeper, occurs. The male is 
commoner than the female. The insect seems little attracted to flowers, and is 
seldom seen far away from the food-plant. 

The egg is white, of the " bun-shape " common in the Lycaenidae, and 
0*54 mm. in diameter ; the surface is covered with very fine sculpturing and the 
whole egg is surrounded by a zone of transparent bubble-like material which 
is presumably solidified froth. The eggs are laid singly on the base of a bud, 
or the stem of a flower. 

The larva is pale green, the head and spiracles pale brown ; when young- 
it has a conspicuous blackish spot on the prothorax, but this is absent when 
the larva is full-grown. Length of full-grown larva about 11 mm. It eats 
only the flowers, and feeds concealed within them. 


Pupa very pale brown, with a considerable amount of dark brown freckling 
on the dorsal surface. The imago hatches after eight days. 

20. J amides carissima Butler. 
Jamides carissima Butler, 1883, p. 417. 

Druce, p. 443. 
Jamides ivoodfordi ; Druce, p. 442. 

Pagenstecher, p. 302. 

A series collected in Tonga by Armstrong and myself differs considerably 
from the specimens in the British Museum, owing to the more leaden ground- 
colour of the males ; but Captain N. D. Riley, who has kindly examined them 
for me, informs me that in his opinion they are all J. carissima, and that the 
colour of some of them has possibly been altered by damp. This is confirmed 
by the fact that the metallic scales seem to lie much natter and more evenly 
in the older specimens, than in those collected by us. The blue colour in the 
two females of the latter is somewhat more restricted than in the older ones ; 
this may perhaps be seasonal, but the numbers are quite insufficient to prove 
anything. In size, the two series do not appear to differ ; the maximum, 
mean, and minimum expanse of my ten males are 30, 26, and 23 mm., while 
two females measure 27 and 25 mm. respectively. All seem somewhat smaller 
than specimens from the type-locality (the New Hebrides), and in all probability 
a new racial name will be required for them when more material is available. 

The early stages are unknown, but the food-plant is probably a 
Leguminous creeper with rather large pink flowers, round which the butterflies 
were usually seen. 

Rather common at sea-level in Vavau, Haapai, and Togatabu at the time 
of my visit ; Armstrong also found it common in March 1926. Schmeltz's 
record of L. argentina from Niuafou probably refers to this species ; with the 
exception of Danaida archippus, it appears to be the only butterfly yet recorded 
from this exceedingly isolated outlier of the Tongan group. 

21. Jamides morphoides (Butler). 
Jamides morphoides Butler, 1884, p. 347. 

Druce, p. 442. 

There is in the British Museum a single male of this species from the 
Godman-Salvin collection, labelled Tonga (67. F. Mathew). As pointed out by 



Druce, it differs in some respects from the Type, but, especially in view of the 
possibility of a mistake in labelling, I prefer not to describe a single specimen. 
The type locality of the species is Montague Island (Nguna in the New Hebrides), 
and all the other records except that of this male are from localities in the New 
Hebrides. Since Mathew collected in both groups, it seems very probable that 
Tonga is a mistake for either Tongoa, or Tangoa, or Tanna, all in the New 
Hebrides, but our knowledge of the butterflies of Tonga is still very incomplete. 

22. Catochrysops cnejus samoa (H.S.). 

Lycaena samoa Herrich-Schaeffer, p. 73, PI. IV, fig. 18. 
Lycaena cnejus ; Schmeltz, p. 187. 
Catochrysops cnejus ; Rebel, 1910, p. 422. 

Swezey, 1921, p. 605. 
Catochrysops cnejus samoa ; Fruhstorfer, 1923, p. 922. 
EucJirysops cnejus samoa ; Waterhouse, 1904, p. 495. 

As pointed out by Waterhouse, this form is much smaller than the 
Australian one ; it also differs from most other races of the species in the 
absence of the black spot near the costa of the hindwing on the underside, and 
the obsolescence of the two similar spots near the base : the former is absent 
in all the Samoan males that I have seen, and likewise wanting or poorly 
developed in all the females. The tail is considerably shorter than in most 
races of the species. Maximum, mean, and minimum expanse of ten males 
and five females from Samoa are 32, 27, and 24 mm. Variation in this series 
is very slight. 

Never a very common species in Samoa, and rather local, it occurs during 
most months in many localities in the coastal zone of all the islands visited. 
Both sexes fly about the low herbage on the seashore, and hardly penetrate 
inland. I did not see it in Tonga, but Schmeltz records it as occurring there ; 
it does not seem to exist in any of the other groups under consideration. 
Strangely enough, in view of the name, the type locality of this subspecies is 
Vanua Valava (Vanua Mbalavu in Fiji). 

The larva is recorded in Fiji as eating the inflorescences of Crotalaria striata 
D. C. (Leguminosae) ; I did not find early stages in Samoa, but the adults 
were usually seen in the neighbourhood of Vigna lutea A. Gr., which is perhaps 
the food-plant. 


23. Catochrysops lithargyrea pepe, ssp. n. 
Lycaena platissa ; Schmeltz, p. 187. 
Catochrysops platissa ; Druce, p. 444. 

Kebel, 1910, p. 422. 

Swezey, 1921, p. 605. 

Very closely related to Catochrysops caledonica (Lycaena kandarpa var. 
caledonica Felder), from which it differs in the male (PI. II, fig. 7) in the 
complete absence of the orange lunule which, in C. caledonica, borders internally 
the large black spot at the anal angle of the hindwing on the underside, and 
in the absence or poor development of the corresponding black spot on the 
upperside. The female (PL II, fig. 8) greatly resembles that of C. caledonica, 
from which it differs only in the reduction of the orange lunule at the anal angle. 
Maximum, mean, and minimum expanse of male 31, 27, and 24 mm., of female 
27, 26, and 24 mm. Type male from Vailutai, near Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa,, female same place and date ; paratypes twenty-four males and nine 
females from various localities in Western Samoa, various dates ; a series of 
three males and one female from Tutuila agrees with those from Western 
Samoa. Both caledonica and pepe appear to be races of C. lithargyrea, 
described by Moore from a specimen from Ceylon ; the Australian C. platissa 
represents another race of the same species. The name " pepe " is the Samoan 
word for butterfly. 

Variation is very slight in both sexes ; the orange lunule of the male is 
absent in all the specimens that I have examined, including three in the British 
Museum, but the black spot on the upperside, though often absent, is faintly 
developed in most specimens and fairly distinct in one. The orange lunules 
on the upperside of the hindwing in the female vary slightly in development. 

I refer to the above form with much doubt a single male and two females 
from Togatabu Island, Tonga, March 1926. The females do not differ from 
those of C. lithargyrea pepe, but the male has the black spot at the anal angle of 
the hindwing well-developed on the upperside, while the apical and subterminal 
areas of the forewing, and subterminal area of the hindwing are strongly 
suffused with dark brown. In both these respects this form differs from any 
specimen of C. lithargyrea pepe that I have seen, and, when more material is 
available, it will probably prove to be a distinct race. 

The form described above has been recorded by all previous authors as 



L. 'platissa H. S., but the latter race was described from a specimen from Rock- 
hampton, Queensland, and differs in many respects from both C. caledonica 
and the present race. 

Very common on the coast of all the islands of Western Samoa, and in 
Tutuila, wherever the food-plant occurs ; not found inland, and never very 
far from the food-plant. The species was not common in Tonga at the time 
of my visit, and the only specimens seen were in Togatabu. Buxton saw a 
specimen of what he believed to be this species on Nukufetau, Ellice group, but 
did not succeed in catching it. It is widespread in the Pacific outside our area, 
and the local races are usually not very distinct. 

The larva is green, with a white lateral hue, and interrupted white lines 
on each side of the brown mid-dorsal line ; head brown, legs and prolegs very 
pale brown. It feeds on Desmoclium umbellatum D. C. (Leguminosae), a common 
bush with white flowers, and eats only the flowers, refusing leaves even when 

Pupa buff, with pale brown freckling, very like that of Z. labradus ; it is 
fastened by a silken thread to a leaf of the food-plant. 

24. Nacaduba vitiensis samoensis (Druce). 
Nacaduba samoensis Druce, p. 437, PI. XXVII, figs. 5 and 6. 
Waterhouse, 1904, p. 494. 
Rebel, 1910, p. 421. 

Nacaduba samoaensis ; Swezey, 1921, p. 604. 
Nacaduba berenice samoensis ; Fruhstorfer, 1923, p. 919. 

In a very long series of this insect, chiefly from Upolu Island, variation is 
considerable, and several of the distinctions between it and typical N. v. vitiensis 
break down ; the upperside of the male is usually of a darker blue than in the 
latter form, but varies much in shade, as also does the blue marking of the 
female, which is sometimes quite as extensive as in N. v. vitiensis. The best point 
of distinction between the two forms is in the ocelli at the anal angle of the 
hindwing on the underside, which are never so large in N. vitiensis samoensis 
as in A r . v. vitiensis ; moreover, in the former the metallic scaling around the 
ocelli is usually blue, though occasionally greenish as in N. v. vitiensis, and the 
yellow ring which always surrounds them in N. v. vitiensis is obsolete or nearly 
so in all but four of the sixty-three specimens of N. vitiensis samoensis that I 


have examined. One of these four (which are all males) is from Apia ; of the 
others one is from Pago-Pago, Tutuila, one from Tail Island, and the other 
(in the Bourke collection) from " Pago-Pago or Apia " ; these last three 
have the ocelli larger than the average, but the metallic ring round them 
is blue. 

A short series of this species caught on Talau Hill, Vavau, Tonga, in March 
1925, and March 1926, may possibly represent a new race, but for the present 
I prefer to refer them to the above form ; the four males have the ocelli small 
and with blue scaling round them, but the yellow ring is present, though poorly 
developed, in all of them ; the single female also has the ocelli small, but the 
metallic scaling is greenish, and the yellow ring is fairly well-developed. 

The maximum, mean, and minimum expanse of twenty-nine males and 
twelve females from Western Samoa are : males 30, 27, and 23 mm., females 
29, 28, and 23 mm. ; in the four Tongan males the average expanse is 24 mm. ; 
specimens from Savai'i do not differ in any respect from those from Upolu. 

In Samoa this form is found throughout the year, often abundantly at 
Malololelei and other localities at high elevations ; also in the coastal region, 
but never so commonly. I have specimens from Upolu, Savai'i, Manono, 
Tutuila, and Tau ; it presumably occurs throughout the group. The specimens 
from Vavau referred to above seem to be the only ones recorded from outside 
Samoa. The adults, especially the males, frequent Lantana and other flowers. 
On the 4th May, 1925, they were extremely abundant at Malololelei, migrating 
from east to west, the wind being negligible, but in the direction of the flight ; 
all the specimens captured (eight or nine) were females. At the same time the 
species was very abundant at the flowers of Lantana and Mikania scandens 
Willd. (Compositae), about half a mile farther up the hill in an easterly direction, 
but here nearly all the specimens were male. What may have been part of a 
similar flight was observed at the crater of Mata Vanu in Savai'i, at an altitude 
of about 1,500 feet, on the 22nd November 1925, when many specimens of 
this species were seen flying over the old lava from east to west ; only two 
specimens were captured, both of which were females. 

The early stages are unknown. 



25. Zizera alsulus (H.S.). 

Lycaena alsulus ; Herrich-Schaeffer, p. 75. 

Schmeltz, p. 187. 

Butler, 1874, p. 289. 

Pagenstecher, p. 302. 

Waterhouse, 1903, p. 212, PI. II, fig. 10. 
Zizera alsulus ; Rebel, 1910, p. 421. 

Waterhouse, 1904, p. 494. 
Lycaena lulu Mathew, 1889, p. 312. 
Zizera lulu ; Druce, p. 436, PI. VII, fig. 2. 
Zizera labradus ; Swezey, 1921, p. 604. 

Zizera labradus alsulus ; Fruhstorfer, 1923, p. 926, PI. CLIII. 

A most unfortunate confusion has arisen between this species and 
Z. labradus, originating in the fact that a specimen of the latter was sent by the 
Godeffroy Museum to the British Museum as Z. alsulus, so that most English 
writers have followed Druce in supposing that the latter was merely a poorly- 
marked form of Z. labradus. A translation of the original description is as 
follows : " Size and form of L. alsus, the upperside with dull violet iridescence, 
the underside brownish ash-grey, towards the base of the hindwings silver- 
green. A few specimens without any markings : then a black dot before the 
edge of interspace 2 of the hindwings, defined basally by a white angular marking, 
in interspace 3 a white dot, subsequently white angular markings in all the 
interspaces. From Rockhampton [Queensland] and Upolu." 

The mention of a black dot makes it certain that the description cannot 
refer to any form of Z. labradus, and Waterhouse is obviously right in using 
alsulus as the earliest name of this species. Fruhstorfer's treatment of it as a 
race of Z. labradus is quite unjustified ; the two species are very distinct, and 
are frequently found flying together ; his figures are unrecognisable. 

Mathew's types of L. lulu were from Togatabu, Tonga, and there are very 
remarkable differences between his type series and specimens from Upolu and 
Savai'i ; in the former the maximum, mean, and minimum expanse in a series 
of sixteen specimens are 27, 25, and 24 mm. ; all the females (seven in number) 
have extensive blue markings on the forewing, and at least some blue on the 
hindwing also, and in six of the nine males there is no black spot at the anal 
angle of the underside of the hindwing. In a series of twenty-nine males and 
fourteen females from Upolu and Savai'i, the corresponding figures are 24, 


21 o, and 17 mm. ; all except three of the females have no blue markings at all 
(these three have no more than a slight powdering of blue on the forewing, 
and none on the hindwing), and the black spot at the anal angle is present in 
all except two of the males (in both series it is always present in the female). 
These differences do not appear, however, to be geographical, for a series of 
seven males and one female taken in Togatabu, Haapai, and Vavau, in 1925 
and 1926, exactly resembles the Samoan specimens, the maximum, mean, and 
minimum expanse being 24, 21 '5, and 18 mm., while the black spots are present 
in all ; the single female is of the Samoan form, with no blue markings. In 
both series the sexes are alike in size. 

Never a very common species in Samoa, but found sparingly in Upolu 
wherever the food-plant, Indigofera anil L. (Leguminosae) occurs ; Water- 
house records it also from Satupaitea in Savai'i. The food-plant is a common 
pink-flowered shrub, which is confined to the coastal region ; I did not see it 
in Tutuila, and have no records of Z. alsulus from there. It is not much 
attracted to flowers, and never found away from the immediate neighbourhood 
of the food-plant. In Tonga it was not uncommon at Nukualofa, and I also 
took it in Haapai and Vavau. 

Egg placed very carefully in between the crowded buds of an inflorescence ; 
bright green when laid, rapidly fading to very pale green approaching white ; 
covered with rather coarse sculpturing of the " honeycomb " type usual in 
Lycaenid eggs ; diameter 0*45 mm., height 0"27 mm. 

Larva slug-shaped, pale green, head pale brown ; there is a rather distinct 
dark brown mid-dorsal line, and a yellow spiracular line ; spiracles brown, 
legs and prolegs green. 

Pupa green, dorsal surface thickly sprinkled with small blotches of 
brownish-olive ; attached by means of a silken girdle and tail-pad to either 
surface of a leaf. The imago hatches after six or seven days. Several of the 
pupae were parasitised by a Chalcid. Early stages were found in September, 
November, and December, and would probably have been found in every 
month if properly sought for. 

Mathew gives a detailed description of the larva and pupa, which differs 
in some respects from mine ; he does not state their provenance, but it appears 
to have been Tonga ; my notes are from material collected in Upolu. 



26. Zizera labradus (Godt.). 
Polyommatus labradus Godt., Enc. Meth., 1819, IX, p. 680. 
Zizera labradus ; Druce, p. 435, PL XXVII, fig. 1. 

Waterhouse, 1904, p. 494. 

Eebel, 1910, p. 421. 

Pagenstecher, p. 302. 

Fruhstorfer, 1923, p. 926, PI. CLIII. 
Lycaena communis (Koch. M. S.) ; Schmeltz, p. 188. 

Fraser, p. 148. 
Lycaena phoebe ; Butler, 1874, p. 285. 

In a long series of this insect from various localities in Samoa and Tonga, 
there is considerable variation ; in the male this chiefly affects the width of the 
dark border on the upperside, and in the female the extent of the blue on the 
upperside. This latter is present and usually well-developed in twenty-six 
Samoan females, and absent or obsolescent in five Tongan ones, but the numbers 
from Tonga are insufficient in such a variable species to show whether the 
difference is a constant one. The spots on the underside vary considerably in 
development. There is also much variation in size, my largest and smallest 
males (both from Upolu, Samoa) measuring 30 and 20 mm. respectively. My 
series from Samoa includes fifty-two males and twenty-six females. 

Very common in the coastal belt of all the islands of Western Samoa, and 
also of Tutuila, Vavau, Haapai and Nukualofa. Buxton captured a single 
male on Nanumea, Ellice Islands, in September 1924, but did not see it on any 
other islands of the group. The butterfly, unlike Z. alsulus, may be found some 
way inland where there are clearings ; this is probably due to the fact that it 
has several food-plants. In Samoa I usually found the larvae on Indigofera 
anil, but also on Desmodium umbellatum, while in Fiji it is recorded as eating 
Phaseolus adenanthus Mey., and Vigna catiang Walp. 

The larva is olive-green in colour, with a dark green mid-dorsal line and 
an interrupted narrow yellow lateral line, connected by short yellowish oblique 
stripes in each segment ; head brown ; legs and prolegs green. Whatever the 
food-plant, only the flowers are eaten. 

Pupa pale buff, with dark brown freckling, mid-dorsal line, and dorsolateral 
line ; length about 7 mm. ; attached to either side of a leaf of the food-plant. 


27. Telicota fraseri, sp. n. 

Male (PL I, fig. 10). — Upperside bright tawny, with the following black 
markings : on the forewing a broad subterminal border, traversed by very 
narrow streaks of the ground-colour along the veins, and becoming wider 
posteriorly ; a narrow stripe from base to rather more than one-third length 
of wing in interspace 1 ; at apex of cell, a wedge-shaped mark extending nearly 
to the subterminal border ; the veins are also mainly black. On the hind- 
wing the costa is edged with black, broadening gradually from base to about 
half-way to termen, then narrowing sharply ; termen and dorsum bordered with 
black, broadest at the anal angle. Underside, ground-colour similar ; the 
black basal streak and the posterior portion of the subterminal border are 
present (the latter ill-developed), and the dorsum is bordered with black, but 
the rest of the black markings, including all those of the hindwing, are absent. 
Cilia bright tawny. There are conspicuous small transparent areas just external 
to the cell in interspaces 2, 3, and 4 of the hindwing, and similar but much less 
well-developed areas at the distal end of the cell in both fore and hindwing, 
and in interspaces 2, 3, and 4 of the forewing ; these latter are not very 
obvious, and are best seen by holding the insect up to the light. Expanse 
34 mm. Type and one paratype from Vaisigano Valley ; two other paratypes 
from Vailima and Vailutai, Upolu Island, Samoa. Female and early stages 

This species is apparently closely allied to the Indian T. palmarum Moore, 
but differs from any form of that species that I have seen in the presence of the 
transparent areas, and in its less extensive black markings ; it very closely 
resembles Telicota augustula H. S., of Fiji, but can immediately be distinguished 
by the absence of the sexual brand in the male. Rechinger's record of the 
latter species from Samoa (Rebel, 1910, p. 422) almost certainly refers to 
T. fraseri, since he did not capture the only specimen he saw ; the only other 
record of T. augustula from Samoa is that of Schmeltz (p. 191), repeated by 
Pagenstecher (p. 302), and probably also refers to the present species. In all 
probability this is also the species mentioned by Fraser as a fawn-coloured 
skipper, seen settling on leaves far from the ground in a clearing in forest, at 
about 800 feet elevation, and I have accordingly named it after her. 

The species appears to be rare in Upolu, but occurred in several localities 
at different altitudes. In 1924 specimens were seen as follows : one at 
Malololelei (2,000 feet) on Lantana flowers, and one at Vailima (600 feet), both 



in May ; one at Vailutai (sea-level), and one at Malololelei, both in June ; one 
at Vailima in December ; in 1925 Armstrong saw four at Lantana blossom, at 
an elevation of about 1,000 feet up the valley of the Vaisigano, and I saw three 
at about the same elevation between Vailima and Malololelei in October ; 
Rechinger's specimen was seen in June. All these localities are in Upolu, and 
we have no records of the species from elsewhere. 

28. Badamia exclamationis (F.). 

Samoan specimens of this species do not seem to be separable from the 
Indian typical form ; possibly they indicate a recent arrival, since the species 
does not seem to have been recorded from Samoa by previous authors. I did 
not see it in Tonga, and can find no records of its occurrence there. 

It is common throughout the year in Upolu, Savai'i and Tutuila, wherever 
its food-plant (never found far from the coast) occurs. The larvae are some- 
times so abundant as to defoliate the trees completely, but the imago is never 
found in very great numbers. It is very fond of settling on a bare twig or other 
vantage-point, from which it darts off at frequent intervals to chase a rival, 
generally returning to the same twig at the end of its flight. 

The egg is hemispherical, cream-coloured when first laid, but changing to 
salmon-pink before hatching ; decorated with from twelve to fifteen longi- 
tudinal lines of beading ; laid, usually singly, but sometimes two or three 
together, on the underside of a leaf of Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae), 
usually near the midrib and almost invariably on the young, partially unfolded 
leaves at the apex of the shoot ; sometimes on the stem near the base of the 
young leaves. Large trees appear to be neglected for oviposition in favour 
of small trees and bushes. 

The young larva is pale green, with a black ring between each pair of seg- 
ments ; head yellowish-green, marked with black. When full-grown, the head 
is pale orange-yellow marked with black, body pale yellow-green with a narrow 
black dorsal stripe, a black transverse ring, which fades into dull red a little 
above the spiracles, between each pair of segments, and between each pair of 
these black rings four very narrow red-brown rings ; spiracles black, legs dark 
brown. The larva turns over the edge of a leaf and spins the two sides together 
with silk ; it usually remains in this shelter when feeding, only putting its 
head out, but may also be found feeding fully-exposed, especially when the 
tree is badly infested and the food-supply short. 


The pupa is brown, covered with a powdery white deposit, which is easily 
rubbed off, and placed between two leaves of the food-plant, which are spun 
together. The pupal stage lasts nine days. 

Early stages of this species were observed throughout the year, when- 
ever the food-plant was examined ; the bushes on which they were found were 
overrun by ants, which seemed to ignore healthy larvae and pupae completely, 
though they readily devoured dead ones. 


Butler, M. R., 1873. Description of three new Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera : P.Z.S., 1873, 
pp. 686-687. 

Butler, A. G., 1874. List of the Diurnal Lepidoptera of the South Sea Islands : P.Z.S., 1874, 
pp. 274-291, PI. XLIV. 

Butler, A. G., 1875. On a Collection of Butterflies from the New Hebrides and Loyalty Islands, 

with Descriptions of new Species : P.Z.S., 1875, pp. 610-619. 
Butler, A. G., 1878. On a small Collection of Lepidoptera obtained by the Rev. J. S. Whitmee 
£i» at the Ellice Islands : P.Z.S., 1878, pp. 296-297. 

Butler, A. G., 1883. The Lepidoptera collected during the recent Expedition of H.M.S. 

" Challenger " : 'Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, -p), XV. )>}>• 238-242. ; ^ 
Buxton, P. A., 1926. Proc. Ent. Soc. London, 1926, p. 35. 

Cockerell, T. D. A., 1925. The Distribution of the Pierid Genus Anaphaeis : Entomologist, 
LVIII, p. 168. 

Collenette, C. L., 1925. The present Status of Danaida plexippus L. in the Pacific Islands : 

E.M.M., LXI, pp. 198-202. 
Collenette, C. L., 1926. Notes on Hypolimnas bolina L. in the Pacific Islands : E.M.M., LXII, 
pp. 25-28. 

Dixey, F. A., 1923. A Pierine from Viti Levu, Fiji : Proc. Ent. Soc. London, 1923, pp. iv-v. 
Druce, H. H., 1892. A List of the Lycaenidae of the South Pacific Islands East of the Solomon 

Group, with Descriptions of several new Species : P.Z.S., 1892, pp. 434-446, PL XXVII. 
Felder, C, 1862. Verzeichniss der von den Naturforschern der k.k. Fregatte " Novara " 

gesammelten Macrolepidopteren : Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, XII, pp. 473-496. 
Fraser, J., 1894. About some Samoan Butterflies : E.M.M., 1894, pp. 146-149. 
Fruhstorfer, H., 1902. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Lepidopteren der Viti-Inseln : Stett. ent. 

Zeit., 1902, pp. 350-359. 
Fruhstorfer, H., 1910-1923. Seitz, die Grossschmetterlinge der Erde, Vol. IX. 
Herrich-Schaeffer, 1869. Neue Schmetterlinge aus dem " Museum Godeffroy " in Hamburg : 

Stett. ent. Zeit., XXX, pp. 65-80, 138, PI. I-IV. 
Hopkins, G. H. E., 1926. Proc. Ent. Soc. London, 1926, p. 35. 

Mathew, G. F., 1885. Life-History of three Species of Western Pacific Rhopalocera : Trans. 

Ent. Soc. London, 1885, pp. 357-367, PL X. 
Mathew, G. F., 1889. Descriptions and Life-Histories of new Species of Rhopalocera from 

the Western Pacific : Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1889, pp. 311-315. 
Mayor, A. G., 1924. Rose Atoll, American Samoa : Papers from the Dept. of Marine Biology, 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, XIX, pp. 73-79. 



Moore, P., 1883. A Monograph of Limnaina and Danaina : P.Z.S., 1883, pp. 201-323. 
Murray, K. P., 1873. Descriptions of new Species of Exotic Rhopalocera : E.M.M., X, 1873-4, 
pp. 107-108. 

Pagenstecher, 1909. Die geographische Verbreitung der Schmetterlinge : Jena. 
Poulton, E. B., 1924. Mimicry in the Butterflies of Fiji : Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1923, pp. 

Prittwitz, 0. von, 1867. Lepidopterologisches : Stett. ent. Zeit., 1867, pp. 257-277. 
Rainbow, W. J., 1897. The Insect Fauna of Funafuti : Mem. Austral. Mus., Ill, pp. 89-102. 
Rebel, H., 1910. Botanische und Zoologische Ergebnisse einer wissenschaftlichen Forschungsreise 

nach den Samoaninseln, dem Neuguinea-Archipel und den Salomoninseln : Denk. K. Akad. 

Wiss. Wien., LXXXV, pp. 412-432, pi. 18, 1910. 
Rebel, H., 1915. Neuer Beitrag zur Lepidopterenfauna der Samoa-Inseln : Mitt. zool. Mus. 

Hamburg, XXXII, 2 Beiheft, pp. 121-158. 
Schmeltz, J. D. E., 1876. Ueber polynesische Lepidopteren : Verb, des Ver. fur naturw. Unterh., 

Hamburg, II, pp. 173-192. 
Semper, G., 1866. Description of Papilio gocleffroyi, n. sp. : Trans. Ent. Soc. London, II, pp. 

469-470, PI. XXIV. 

Semper, G., 1905. Beitrag zur Lepidopterenfauna des Karolinen-Archipels : Iris, XVIII, 
pp. 245-267. 

Setchell, W. A., 1924. Vegetation of Rose Atoll : Papers of the Dept. of Marine Biology, 

Carnegie Institution of Washington, XX, pp. 225-275. 
Swezey, O. H, 1921. The Butterflies of the Samoan Islands: Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc, IV, 

pp. 601-605. 

Swezey, O. H., 1924. Notes on Insect Pests in Samoa : Hawaiian Planters' Record, XXVIII, 
pp. 16-31. 

Talbot, G., 1921. Euploeines forming Mimetic Groups in the Islands of Key, Aru, Tenimber, 

Austraha and Fiji : Bull. Hill Mus., I, pp. 16-31. 
Veitch, R., 1921. The Food-plants or Hosts of some Fijian Insects : Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 

1921, pp. 505-517. 
Veitch, R., 1924. Ditto, I.e., 1924, pp. 153-161. 

Walker, J. J., 1914. The Geographical Distribution of Danaida plexippus : E.M.M., XXV, 
pp. 181-237. 

Waterhouse, G. A., 1903. Notes on Australian Rhopalocera, Lycaenidae : Proc. Linn. Soc. 

N. S. W., XXVIII, pp. 132-272. 
Waterhouse, G. A., 1904. On three Collections of Rhopalocera from Fiji and one from Samoa : 

Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1904, pp. 491-495. 
Woodford, C. M., 1890. A Naturalist among the Heacl-Hunters, London, G. Philip & Son. 
Woodford, C M., 1895. The Gilbert Islands : Geogr. Journ., VI, pp. 325-350. 




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(Except Figures 2, 3 and 4.) 



' P.Z.S., 1883, pp. 201-328. 
tic Rhopaloeera : E.M.M., X, 1873-4, 

j etterlinge : Jena, 
ns. Ent. Soc. London, 192'' 

., 1867, pp. 257-277. 
•tral. Mus., Ill, pp. 89-102. 
■•nschaftlichen Forschungsreise 
moninseln : Denk. K. Akad. 

>a-Inseln : Mitt. zool. Mus. 

Ver. fur naturw. Unterh., 
Samoan and Tongan butterflies. 

Soc. London, II, pp. 


nd Tongan bt 
(All figures natural size.) 

Fig. 1. Hypolimnas bolina inconstans Fruhst., neallotype male. ^'Apia^Up^m^' 

Samoa .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ^jj.. Bitflr><»\P' 26 

Fig. 2. Hypolimnas bolina inconstans Fruhst., female. Nr. Apia, Upolu, Samoa . . p. 26 

Fig. 3. Belenois java Sparrm., male from Apia or Pago-pago, Samoa, Nov. or Dec. 

1892, E. Bourke . . . . v 1 ) ) > " ! p. 48 


Fig. 4. Belenois java Sparrm., female from Lalomanu. Upolu Island, Samoa, 24.X.1924 p. 48 
Fig. 5. Belenois java schmeltzi ssp. n., type male. Neiafu, Vavau, Tonga . . . . p. 46 
Fig. 6. Belenois java schmeltzi ssp. n., type female. Neiafu, Vavau, Tonga .. p. 46 

Fig. 7. Deudorix epijarbas doris ssp. n., type male. Upolu, Samoa . . . . . . p. 49 

pp. 181-237. , 

Fig. 8. Deudorix epijarbas armstrongi ssp. n., type female. Neiafu, Vavau, Tpnga p. 51 

N 'S -AY K '- ' IIi nr> 132—272 

Fig. 9. Deudorix epijarbas doris ssp. n., type female. Upolu. Samoa .. .. p. 49 

Waterhou?*, I ,3 . I90r r (3n three Collections' of lOiopalocera from Fiji and one from Samoa : 

Trail ing. i . TdicotafrasePP^m^^&fe&Male. Upolu, Samoa .'. p. 61 

Woodford, V. M., 1890. A Naturalist among tlie Head-Hunters, London, G. Philip & Son. 
Woodford, C M., .1895. The Gilbert Islands : Geogr. Journ., VI, pp. 325-350. 





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(Except Figure 3.) 


Samoan and Tongan butterflies. 
(All figures natural size.) 

Fig. 1. Danaida melissa tutuilae ssp. n., type male. Tutuila, Samoa . . . . p. 9 

Fig. 2. Danaida melissa tutuilae ssp. n., type female. Tutuila, Samoa . . . . p. 9 

Fig. 3. Danaida melissa melittula (H.S.), male. Upolu, Samoa . . . . . . p. 8 

Fig. 4. Doleschallia bisaltide tongana Hopk. (nom. nov.), male. Neiafu, Vavau, Tonga p. 22 

Fig. 5. Hypolimnas errabunda sp. n., type male. Malololelei, Upolu, Samoa . . p. 23 

Fig. 6. Hypolimnas errabunda sp. n., type female. Malololelei, Upolu, Samoa . . p. 23 

Fig. 7. Catochrysops lithargyrea pepe ssp. n., type male. Nr. Apia, Upolu, Samoa . . p. 55 

Fig. 8. Catochrysops lithargyrea pepe ssp. n., type female. Nr. Apia, Upolu, Samoa p. 55 

Fig. 9. Catophaga jacquinolii manaia ssp. n., type male. Lalomanu, Upolu, Samoa p. 44 

Fig. 11. Catophaga jacquinotii manaia ssp. n., type female. Lalomanu, Upolu, 

Samoa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 44 

Figs. 10, 12. Catophaga jacquinotii manaia ssp. n.,vars. Upolu, Samoa .. .. p. 45 

Fig. 13. Atella exulans sp. n., type male. Malololelei, Upolu, Samoa . . . . p. 39 

Fig. 14. Atella exulans sp. n., type female. Malololelei, Upolu Samoa . . . . p. 39 




A. Robinson, photo.} 


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.1. Robinson, photo.] 


Various types of injuries inflicted on Samoan and Tongan butterflies and 
specimens of male Euploea eleutho bourkei showing brands. 

(All figures natural size.) 

Fig. 1. Euploea eleutho bourkei Poulton. Tutuila, Samoa . . . . . . . . p. 3 

Fig. 2. Euploea eleutho mathewi Poulton. Togatabu, Tonga . . . . . . . . p.3 

Fig. 3. Euploea schmeltzi schmeltzi (H.S.). Savai'i, Samoa .. .. .. .. p.3 

Fig. 4. Hypolimnas bolina pallescens (Butl.). Haapai, Tonga . . . . . . p.3 

Figs. 5—7. Issoria sinha bowdenia (But!.). Upolu and Savai'i (fig. 6), Samoa . . p. 3 

Fig. 8. Euploea eleutho mathewi Poulton. Togatabu, Tonga. . . . . . p. 14 

Figs. 9, 10. Euploea eleutho bourkei Poulton. Tutuila, Samoa . . . . . . p, 12 

Figs. 1-3 show distinct beak-marks ; 4-7 are probably the result of lizard-bites. The 

Issoria represented in fig. 7 had been captured by a spider. 

Fig. 8 shows selective injury done by dipterous larvae to the hind wings of a dead 
specimen, the white areas having been eaten and the black area left. 

The male specimens of E. e. bourkei with brands (figs. 9 and 10) were captured at the 
same time and place as brandless specimens. 



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Larvae and pupae of Samoan butterflies. 
(All figures twice natural size.) 

Figs. 1, 2. Danaida melissa melittula (H.S.). .. .. .. .. .. ' .. p. 8 

Figs. 3, 4. Euploea schmeltzi schmeltzi (H.S.). . . . . . . . . . . p. 15 

Fig. 5. Euploea eleutho bourkei Poulton. . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 11 

Figs. 6, 7. Issoria sinha bowdenia (Butl.). . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 38 

Figs. 8, 9. Atella exulans sp. n. . . . . . . . . ^^li^JiiE . . . . p. 39 

Figs. 10, 11. Acraea andromacha polynesiaca Rebe], . . . . . . . . . . p. 19 

Fig. 12. Hypolimnas errabunda sp. n. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . p. 23 

Fig. 13. Badamia exclamationis (F.). .. .. .. .. .. .. p. 62